Differential diagnostic significance of the paucity of HLA-I antigens on metastatic breast carcinoma cells in effusions.
Distinction between benign reactive mesothelial cells and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells in effusions from patients with a known prior history of breast cancer is not the easiest task in diagnostic pathology. Here, we report the usefulness of testing the expression of class I HLA antigens (HLA A, B, C) in this respect. Cytospins were prepared from effusions of patients without the history of breast cancer (5 cases) and from effusions of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (11 cases). Three effusions from cancerous patients were not malignant cytologically. The expression of HLA-A, B, C, HLA-DR and beta2-microglobulin as well as the macrophage antigen, CD14, was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. In 10 of 11 effusions the cytologically malignant cells expressed very weak or undetectable HLA-A,B,C as compared to the mesothelial cells and macrophages. The paucity of expression of HLA-A, B, C was detectable in those 3 cases where a definitive cytological diagnosis of malignancy could not be established. In contrast, mesothelial cells and macrophages from all samples were uniformly and strongly positive for both HLA-A, B, C and beta2-microglobulin. We conclude that the paucity of HLA-I antigens provides a marker helpful in distinguishing metastatic breast carcinoma cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions. (+info)
Use of fibrinolytic agents in the management of complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyemas.
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for pleural infection includes catheter drainage and antibiotics. Tube drainage often fails if the fluid is loculated by fibrinous adhesions when surgical drainage is needed. Streptokinase may aid the process of pleural drainage, but there have been no controlled trials to assess its efficacy. METHODS: Twenty four patients with infected community acquired parapneumonic effusions were studied. All had either frankly purulent/culture or Gram stain positive pleural fluid (13 cases; 54%) or fluid which fulfilled the biochemical criteria for pleural infection. Fluid was drained with a 14F catheter. The antibiotics used were cefuroxime and metronidazole or were guided by culture. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive intrapleural streptokinase, 250,000 IU daily, or control saline flushes for three days. The primary end points related to the efficacy of pleural drainage--namely, the volume of pleural fluid drained and the chest radiographic response to treatment. Other end points were the number of pleural procedures needed and blood indices of inflammation. RESULTS: The streptokinase group drained more pleural fluid both during the days of streptokinase/control treatment (mean (SD) 391 (200) ml versus 124 (44) ml; difference 267 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 390; p < 0.001) and overall (2564 (1663) ml versus 1059 (502) ml; difference 1505 ml, 95% CI 465 to 2545; p < 0.01). They showed greater improvement on the chest radiograph at discharge, measured as the fall in the maximum dimension of the pleural collection (6.0 (2.7) cm versus 3.4 (2.7) cm; difference 2.9 cm, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.4; p < 0.05) and the overall reduction in pleural fluid collection size (p < 0.05, two tailed Fisher's exact test). Systemic fibrinolysis and bleeding complications did not occur. Surgery was required by three control patients but none in the streptokinase group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural streptokinase probably aids the treatment of pleural infections by improving pleural drainage without causing systemic fibrinolysis or local haemorrhage. (+info)
Exogenous administration of heme oxygenase-1 by gene transfer provides protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers protection against a variety of oxidant-induced cell and tissue injury. In this study, we examined whether exogenous administration of HO-1 by gene transfer could also confer protection. We first demonstrated the feasibility of overexpressing HO-1 in the lung by gene transfer. A fragment of the rat HO-1 cDNA clone containing the entire coding region was cloned into plasmid pAC-CMVpLpA, and recombinant adenoviruses containing the rat HO-1 cDNA fragment Ad5-HO-1 were generated by homologous recombination. Intratracheal administration of Ad5-HO-1 resulted in a time-dependent increase in expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein in the rat lungs. Increased HO-1 protein expression was detected diffusely in the bronchiolar epithelium of rats receiving Ad5-HO-1, as assessed by immunohistochemical studies. We then examined whether ectopic expression of HO-1 could confer protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Rats receiving Ad5-HO-1, but not AdV-betaGal, a recombinant adenovirus expressing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase, before exposure to hyperoxia (>99% O2) exhibited marked reduction in lung injury, as assessed by volume of pleural effusion and histological analyses (significant reduction of edema, hemorrhage, and inflammation). In addition, rats receiving Ad5-HO-1 also exhibited increased survivability against hyperoxic stress when compared with rats receiving AdV-betaGal. Expression of the antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and of L-ferritin and H-ferritin was not affected by Ad5-HO-1 administration. Furthermore, rats treated with Ad5-HO-1 exhibited attenuation of hyperoxia-induced neutrophil inflammation and apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest the feasibility of high-level HO-1 expression in the rat lung by gene delivery. To our knowledge, we have demonstrated for the first time that HO-1 can provide protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury in vivo by modulation of neutrophil inflammation and lung apoptosis. (+info)
Chronic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta presenting with right pleural effusion and left phrenic paralysis.
A 62-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chronic dysphagia and lower back pain. Chest radiography revealed a wide mediastinal shadow and an elevated left diaphragm, which proved to be secondary to left phrenic paralysis. The patient was diagnosed with an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta and was admitted to the hospital. After the patient was admitted, the aneurysm ruptured into the right chest. The patient underwent an emergency operation to replace the ruptured segment with a synthetic graft. Postoperative recovery and follow-up were uneventful. This report describes an unusual presentation of a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis caused by compression of the phrenic nerve is an unusual complication that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (+info)
Empirical treatment with fibrinolysis and early surgery reduces the duration of hospitalization in pleural sepsis.
The efficacy of three different treatment protocols was compared: 1) simple chest tube drainage (Drain); 2) adjunctive intrapleural streptokinase (IP-SK); and 3) an aggressive empirical approach incorporating SK and early surgical drainage (SK+early OP) in patients with pleural empyema and high-risk parapneumonic effusions. This was a nonrandomized, prospective, controlled time series study of 82 consecutive patients with community-acquired empyema (n=68) and high-risk parapneumonic effusions (n=14). The following three treatment protocols were administered in sequence over 6 years: 1) Drain (n=29, chest catheter drainage); 2) IP-SK (n=23, adjunctive intrapleural fibrinolysis with 250,000 U x day(-1) SK); and 3) SK+early OP (n=30, early surgical drainage was offered to patients who failed to respond promptly following initial drainage plus SK). The average duration of hospital stay in the SK+early OP group was significantly shorter than in the Drain and IP-SK groups. The mortality rate was also significantly lower in the SK+early OP than the Drain groups (3 versus 24%). It was concluded that an empirical treatment strategy which combines adjunctive intrapleural fibrinolysis with early surgical intervention results in shorter hospital stays and may reduce mortality in patients with pleural sepsis. (+info)
High pleural fluid hyaluronan concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis.
Previous studies have shown that high pleural fluid (Pf) hyaluronan (HYA) concentrations may be due not only to malignant mesothelioma but also to inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate Pf-HYA in various nonmalignant inflammatory pleural disorders. A radiometric assay was used to determine HYA in Pf and serum (S) of 126 patients, 12 of whom had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 22 tuberculosis, 22 pneumonia, 41 lung cancer, 10 malignant mesothelioma and 19 congestive heart failure. Pf-HYA values were correlated with values for Pf-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and Pf-interleukin (IL)-1beta, as determined by radioimmunoassay. The highest median Pf-HYA (125.6 mg x L(-1), range 0.04-386.5 mg x L(-1)) occurred in patients with malignant mesothelioma. Among patients with nonmalignant inflammatory diseases, significantly higher median Pf-HYA were observed in those with rheumatoid arthritis (64.2 mg x L(-1), range 25.8-106.9 mg x L(-1)) than in those with tuberculosis (25.5 mg x L(-1), range 14.9-57.1 mg x L(-1), p<0.0005) or pneumonia (20.9 mg x L(-1), range 9.5-129.4 mg x L(-1), p<0.005). There was no correlation between Pf-HYA and S-HYA. Pf-HYA correlated positively with Pf-TNF-alpha (r=0.62) and Pf-IL-1beta (r=0.52). High pleural fluid hyaluronan occurs not only in malignant mesothelioma, but also in certain nonmalignant inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. One explanation for the increase in pleural fluid hyaluronan may be local production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. (+info)
The pigtail catheter for pleural drainage: a less invasive alternative to tube thoracostomy.
BACKGROUND: Tube thoracostomy remains the standard of care for the treatment of pneumothoraces and simple effusions. This report describes a favorable experience with the 8.3 French pigtail catheter as a less invasive alternative to traditional chest tube insertion. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 109 consecutive pigtail catheter placements. Catheters were inserted under local anesthesia at the bedside without radiographic guidance. Pre- and post-insertion chest radiographs were reviewed to determine efficacy of drainage. RESULTS: Fifty-one of 109 patients (47%) were mechanically ventilated and 26 patients (24%) had a coagulopathy. There were no complications related to pigtail catheter insertion. Seventy-seven pigtail catheters were placed for pleural effusion and 32 for pneumothorax. Mean effusion volume decreased from 43 to 9 percent, and drainage averaged 2899 ml over 97 hours. Mean pneumothorax size diminished from 38 to 1 percent during an average 71-hour placement. Clinical success rates in the effusion and pneumothorax groups were 86 and 81 percent, respectively. CONCLUSION: The pigtail catheter offers reliable treatment of pneumothoraces and simple effusions and is a safe and less invasive alternative to tube thoracostomy. (+info)
Thoracic blastomycosis and empyema.
Blastomycosis is endemic in river valley areas of the southeastern and Midwestern United States. Pulmonary manifestations include chronic cough and pleuritic pain. Radiographic appearance of the infection can mimic bronchogenic lung carcinoma. Pleural effusion is rarely associated with this pulmonary infection, and empyema has not been previously reported. We report a case of pulmonary and pleural Blastomyces dermatitidis infection presenting as empyema thoracis. Diagnosis and treatment were attained with video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) pleural and lung biopsy and debridement. (+info)