Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases.
32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer. (+info)
Maintenance of motility in mouse sperm permeabilized with streptolysin O.
One approach to studying the mechanisms governing sperm motility is to permeabilize sperm and examine the regulation of motility by manipulating the intracellular milieu of the cell. The most common method of sperm permeabilization, detergent treatment, has the disadvantage that the membranes and many proteins are extracted from the cell. To avoid this problem, we have developed a method that uses streptolysin O to create stable pores within the plasma membrane while leaving internal membranes intact. Sperm were permeabilized, preincubated, and then treated with 0.6 U/ml of streptolysin O. Permeabilization was assessed by fluorescent dye technologies and endogenous protein phosphorylation using exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP. Streptolysin O-induced permeabilization rendered the sperm immotile, and the effect was Ca2+-dependent. When the cells were treated simultaneously with a medium containing ATP, streptolysin O-treated sperm maintained flagellar movement. These results demonstrate that the streptolysin O permeabilization model system is a useful experimental method for studying the mechanisms that regulate sperm motility since it allows the flagellar apparatus to be exposed to various exogenously added molecules. (+info)
Lack of evidence from HPLC 32P-post-labelling for tamoxifen-DNA adducts in the human endometrium.
Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer in women. It is also a potent carcinogen in rat liver and forms covalent DNA adducts in this tissue. A previous study exploring DNA adducts in human endometria, utilizing thin layer chromatography 32P-postlabelling, found no evidence for adducts in tamoxifen-treated women [Carmichael,P.L., Ugwumadu,A.H.N., Neven,P., Hewer,A.J., Poon,G.K. and Phillips,D.H. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 1475-1479]. However, subsequent work utilizing HPLC 32P-post-labelling [Hemminki,K., Ranjaniemi,H., Lindahl,B. and Moberger,B. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 4374-4377] suggested that very low levels could be detected. We have sought to investigate this question further by reproducing the HPLC methodology at two centres, and analysing endometrial DNA from 20 patients treated with 20 mg/day tamoxifen for between 22 and 65 months. Liver DNA isolated from tamoxifen-treated rats was used as a positive control. We found no convincing evidence for tamoxifen-derived DNA adducts in human endometrium. HPLC elution profiles of post-labelled DNA from tamoxifen-treated women were indistinguishable from those obtained with DNA from 14 untreated women and from six women taking toremifene, an analogue of tamoxifen. (+info)
Cellular effects of beta-particle delivery on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells: a dose-response study.
BACKGROUND: Although endovascular radiotherapy inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, the exact cellular alterations induced by beta irradiation remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated in vitro the ability of 32P-labeled oligonucleotides to alter (1) proliferation of human and porcine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs), (2) cell cycle progression, (3) cell viability and apoptosis, (4) cell migration, and (5) cell phenotype and morphological features. beta radiation significantly reduced proliferation of VSMCs (ED50 1.10 Gy) and ECs (ED50 2.15 Gy) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to beta emission interfered with cell cycle progression, with induction of G0/G1 arrest in VSMCs, without evidence of cell viability alteration, apoptosis, or ultrastructural changes. This strategy also proved to efficiently inhibit VSMC migration by 80% and induce contractile phenotype appearance, as shown by the predominance of alpha-actin immunostaining in beta-irradiated cells compared with control cells. CONCLUSIONS: 32P-labeled oligonucleotide was highly effective in inhibiting proliferation of both VSMCs and ECs in a dose-dependent fashion, with ECs showing a higher resistance to these effects. beta irradiation-induced G1 arrest was not associated with cytotoxicity and apoptosis, thus demonstrating a potent cytostatic effect of beta-based therapy. This effect, coupled to that on VSMC migration inhibition and the appearance of a contractile phenotype, reinforced the potential of ionizing radiation to prevent neointima formation after angioplasty. (+info)
Radioactive phosphorus uptake testing of choroidal lesions. A report of two false-negative tests.
Two false-negative results from 32P testing for histologically verified malignant melanomas of the choroid are reported. In the first case, a haemorrhagic choroidal detachment caused an increase in probe; additionally, the tumour was necrotic. Both factors are likely to have contributed to the false-negative result. A satisfactory explanation for the false-negative result in the second case was not determined, although it may have accurately reflected a period of minimal tumour activity, inasmuch as repeat 32P testing was strongly positive eight months later, when unequivocal evidence of tumour growth was present. An alternative explanation is that the orally administered 32P was incompletely absorbed. Since 32P testing is frequently accompanied by significant manipulation both in the manoeuvre associated with tumour localization and in that associated with the actual radioactive counting, it would seem desirable to perform indicated enucleation immediately after completion of the 32P testing. While the properly performed 32P test remains a valuable diagnostic test for helping to establish the presence or absence of malignancies of the posterior globe, it is important to guard against the tendency to underestimate careful clinical evaluation. (+info)
Abnormal myo-inositol and phospholipid metabolism in cultured fibroblasts from patients with ataxia telangiectasia.
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a complex autosomal recessive disorder that has been associated with a wide range of physiological defects including an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation and abnormal checkpoints in the cell cycle. The mutated gene product, ATM, has a domain possessing homology to phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and has been shown to possess protein kinase activity. In this study, we have investigated how AT affects myo-inositol metabolism and phospholipid synthesis using cultured human fibroblasts. In six fibroblast lines from patients with AT, myo-inositol accumulation over a 3-h period was decreased compared to normal fibroblasts. The uptake and incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphoinositides over a 24-h period, as well as the free myo-inositol content was also lower in some but not all of the AT fibroblast lines. A consistent finding was that the proportion of 32P in total labeled phospholipid that was incorporated into phosphatidylglycerol was greater in AT than normal fibroblasts, whereas the fraction of radioactivity in phosphatidic acid was decreased. Turnover studies revealed that AT cells exhibit a less active phospholipid metabolism as compared to normal cells. In summary, these studies demonstrate that two manifestations of the AT defect are alterations in myo-inositol metabolism and phospholipid synthesis. These abnormalities could have an effect on cellular signaling pathways and membrane production, as well as on the sensitivity of the cells to ionizing radiation and proliferative responses. (+info)
Identification, purification, and characterization of the rat liver golgi membrane ATP transporter.
Phosphorylation of secretory and integral membrane proteins and of proteoglycans also occurs in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. ATP, the phosphate donor in these reactions, must first cross the Golgi membrane before it can serve as substrate. The existence of a specific ATP transporter in the Golgi membrane has been previously demonstrated in vitro using intact Golgi membrane vesicles from rat liver and mammary gland. We have now identified and purified the rat liver Golgi membrane ATP transporter. The transporter was purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of conventional ion exchange, dye color, and affinity chromatography. An approximately 70,000-fold purification (2% yield) was achieved starting from crude rat liver Golgi membranes. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa was identified as the putative transporter by a combination of column chromatography, photoaffinity labeling with an analog of ATP, and native functional size determination on a glycerol gradient. The purified transporter appears to exist as a homodimer within the Golgi membrane, and when reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine liposomes, was active in ATP but not nucleotide sugar or adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate transport. The transport activity was saturable with an apparent Km very similar to that of intact Golgi vesicles. (+info)
Ku antigen-DNA conformation determines the activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase and DNA sequence-directed repression of mouse mammary tumor virus transcription.
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transcription is repressed by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) through a DNA sequence element, NRE1, in the viral long terminal repeat that is a sequence-specific DNA binding site for the Ku antigen subunit of the kinase. While Ku is an essential component of the active kinase, how the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) is regulated through its association with Ku is only beginning to be understood. We report that activation of DNA-PKcs and the repression of MMTV transcription from NRE1 are dependent upon Ku conformation, the manipulation of DNA structure by Ku, and the contact of Ku80 with DNA. Truncation of one copy of the overlapping direct repeat that comprises NRE1 abrogated the repression of MMTV transcription by Ku-DNA-PKcs. Remarkably, the truncated element was recognized by Ku-DNA-PKcs with affinity similar to that of the full-length element but was unable to promote the activation of DNA-PKcs. Analysis of Ku-DNA-PKcs interactions with DNA ends, double- and single-stranded forms of NRE1, and the truncated NRE1 element revealed striking differences in Ku conformation that differentially affected the recruitment of DNA-PKcs and the activation of kinase activity. (+info)