Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pelB is an important virulence factor in avocado fruit-fungus interaction.
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important pathogen of tropical and subtropical fruits. The C. gloeosporioides pelB gene was disrupted in the fungus via homologous recombination. Three independent isolates, GD-14, GD-23, and GD-29, did not produce or secrete pectate lyase B (PLB) and exhibited 25% lower pectate lyase (PL) and pectin lyase (PNL) activities and 15% higher polygalacturonase (PG) activity than the wild type. The PLB mutants exhibited no growth reduction on glucose, Na polypectate, or pectin as the sole carbon source at pH 3.8 or 6.0, except for a 15% reduction on pectin at pH 6.0. When pelB mutants were inoculated onto avocado fruits, however, a 36 to 45% reduction in estimated decay diameter was observed compared with the two controls, the wild type and undisrupted transformed isolate. In addition, these pelB mutants induced a significantly higher host phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity as well as the antifungal diene, which is indicative of higher host resistance. These results suggest that PLB is an important factor in the attack of C. gloeosporioides on avocado fruit, probably as a result of its virulence factor and role in the induction of host defense mechanisms. (+info)
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors from avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruits.
A methanol extract of avocado fruits showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. The active principles were isolated and identified as (5E,12Z,15Z)-2-hydroxy-4-oxoheneicosa-5,12,15-trienyl (1), (2R,12Z,15Z)-2-hydroxy-4-oxoheneicosa-12,15-dienyl (2), (2R*,4R*)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl (3) and (2R*,4R*)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl (4) acetates by instrumental analyses. The IC50 of the compounds were 4.0 x 10(-6), 4.9 x 10(-6), 9.4 x 10(-6), and 5.1 x 10(-6) M, respectively. (+info)
Local modulation of host pH by Colletotrichum species as a mechanism to increase virulence.
The phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides produces one pectate lyase (PL) that is a key virulence factor in disease development. During growth of C. gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, and Colletotrichum coccodes in acidified yeast extract medium, the fungus secreted ammonia and increased the medium pH. Ammonia accumulation and the consequent pH change increased as a function of initial pH and buffer capacity of the medium. PL secretion by C. gloeosporioides correspondingly increased as the pH of the medium increased. The C. gloeosporioides pelB gene-disrupted mutant was able to increase ammonia accumulation and pH of the media similarly to the wild-type isolate. C. gloeosporioides in avocado, C. coccodes in tomato, and C. acutatum in apple showed ammonia accumulation in the infected area where pH increased to 7.5 to 8 and PL activity is optima. In nonhost interactions where C. gloeosporioides was inoculated in apples, the addition of ammonia-releasing compounds significantly enhanced pathogenicity to levels similar to those caused by the compatible C. acutatum-apple interaction. The results therefore suggest the importance of ammonia secretion as a virulence factor, enhancing environmental pH and pathogenicity of the Colletotrichum species. (+info)
Defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol.
The potential use of avocado as a fiber source was evaluated. The total dietary fiber content of fresh avocado fruit of the Ettinger variety was 5.2 g/100 g. Approximately 75% was insoluble, and 25% soluble. The water-holding capacity of dry defatted avocado pulp was similar to that of cellulose, and trypsin inhibitors were not detected. The dietary and metabolic consequences of the avocado pulp were studied in male rats fed normal and hypercholesterolemic diets. Rats consumed semipurified diets containing either avocado pulp as the dietary fiber source or cellulose (control) with or without 10 g/kg cholesterol and 5 g/kg cholic acid. Food consumption and body weight gain were lower in rats fed avocado compared with those fed cellulose. Relative cecum weight was higher in avocado-fed rats. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels did not differ in rats fed diets without cholesterol, but plasma cholesterol was greater in avocado-fed than in cellulose-fed rats that consumed cholesterol. Regardless of dietary cholesterol, hepatic total fat levels, as evaluated histologically, but not directly, were lower in avocado-fed rats. These data suggest the presence of an appetite depressant in avocado and that avocado pulp interferes with hepatic fat metabolism. (+info)
Comparison of cross inoculation potential of South African avocado and mango isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Three hundred and eighteen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. Isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. Cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. All isolates produced lesions on all hosts except citrus. Factors such as area of origin and symptom type from which original isolations were made, could not be correlated with lesion development on these hosts. (+info)
Microsatellite markers in avocado (Persea americana Mill.): genealogical relationships among cultivated avocado genotypes.
Twenty-five microsatellite markers uniquely differentiated 35 avocado cultivars and two wild relatives. Average heterozygosity was high (60.7%), ranging from 32% in P. steyermarkii to 84% in Fuerte and Bacon. In a subset of 15 cultivars, heterozygosity averaged 63.5% for microsatellites, compared to 41.8% for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). A neighbor-joining tree, according to average shared allele distances, consisted of three clusters likely corresponding to the botanical races of avocado and intermediate clusters uniting genotypes of presumably racially hybrid origin. Several results were at odds with existing botanical assignments that are sometimes rendered difficult by incomplete pedigree information, the complexity of the hybrid status (multiple backcrossing), or both. For example, cv. Harvest clustered with the Guatemalan race cultivars, yet it is derived from the Guatemalan x Mexican hybrid cv. Gwen. Persea schiedeana grouped with cv. Bacon. The rootstock G875 emerged as the most divergent genotype in our data set. Considerable diversity was found particularly among accessions from Guatemala, including G810 (West Indian race), G6 (Mexican race), G755A (hybrid Guatemalan x P. schiedeana), and G875 (probably not P. americana). Low bootstrap support, even upon exclusion of (known) hybrid genotypes from the data matrix, suggests the existence of ancient hybridization or that the botanical races originated more recently than previously thought. (+info)
Increase of caspase-3 activity by lignans from Machilus thunbergii in HL-60 cells.
Nine lignans and two butanolides were isolated from the stem bark of Machilus thunbergii and their structures were identified as machilin A (1), licarin B (2), zuonin B (3), macelignan (4), secoisolancifolide (5), isolancifolide (6), oleiferin C (7), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (8), licarin A (9), machilin F (10), and nectandrin B (11) by spectroscopic means. These compounds were assessed for their abilities to activate a caspase-3 activity in human promyeloid leukemic HL-60 cells. The intracellular caspase-3 activity of macelignan (4), oleiferin C (7), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (8), and licarin A (9) increased approximately 3.04, 6.16, 2.10, and 3.10-fold at 100 microM over that of untreated control. In addition, compounds 4, 7, 8, and 9 induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells. (+info)
Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil.
Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P < 0.003), resulting in 4.4 and 2.6 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P < 0.01), resulting in 7.2, 15.3, and 5.1 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado. (+info)