Nuclear phenotype changes after heat shock in Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister).
The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus, subjected to short- and long-duration heat shocks at 40oC were analyzed immediately after the shock and 10 and 30 days later. Normal nuclei with a usual heterochromatic body as well as phenotypes indicative of survival (unravelled heterochromatin, giants) and death (apoptosis, necrosis) responses were observed in control and treated specimens. However, all nuclear phenotypes, except the normal ones, were more frequent in shocked specimens. Similarly altered phenotypes have also been reported in Triatoma infestans following heat shock, although at different frequencies. The frequency of the various nuclear phenotypes observed in this study suggests that the forms of cell survival observed were not sufficient or efficient enough to protect all of the Malpighian tubule cells from the deleterious effects of stress. In agreement with studies on P. megistus survival following heat shock, only long-duration shock produced strongly deleterious effects. (+info)
alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in flight muscles of triatomine bugs Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma sordida.
The alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) activity in flight muscles of Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma sordida, vectors of Chagas disease in Brazil, was studied. Both species showed higher enzymatic activities in fliers than in non-fliers insects. T. sordida exhibited a higher proportion of flier insects than P. megistus. A possible role of alpha-GPDH on triatomines flight is discussed. (+info)
Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.
Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. (+info)
Changes in nuclear phenotypes following cold shock in Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister).
The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of 5th instar male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect Panstrongylus megistus were studied immediately after a short (1 h) cold shock at 0 degrees C, and 10 and 30 days later. The objective was to compare the responses to a cold shock with those known to occur after hyperthermia in order to provide insight into the cellular effect of cold in this species. Nuclei which usually exhibited a conspicuous Y chromosome chromocenter were the most frequent phenotype in control and treated specimens. Phenotypes in which the heterochromatin was unravelled, or in which there was nuclear fusion or cell death were more abundant in the shocked specimens. Most of the changes detected have also been found in heat-shocked nymphs, except for nuclear fusion which generates giant nuclei and which appeared to be less effective or necessary than that elicited after heat shock. Since other studies showed that a short cold shock does not affect the survival of more than 14% of 5th instar nymphs of P. megistus with domestic habit and can induce tolerance to a prolonged cold shock, heat shock proteins proteins are probably the best candidates for effective protection of the cells and the insects from drastic damage caused by low temperature shocks. (+info)
Biogeography of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Ecuador: implications for the design of control strategies.
Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces) and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil), the Natural History Museum London (UK), the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK), the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito), and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito). A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude), and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system. (+info)
Experimental evidence for a demographic cline in Panstrongylus megistus populations.
The population biology of three populations of Panstrongylus megistus was compared to determine possible influence on the behaviour and epidemiological importance of this species. The results demonstrated differences in terms of egg eclosion time, nymphal mortality and development rates, and feeding and defaecation rates. These differences appeared to follow a geographical cline, primarily reflecting different degrees of adaptation to domestic habitats. (+info)
Domiciliation trend of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in Colombia.
The present paper presents evidence of the domiciliation of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in La Gardenia, Colombia through the collection of 2 unhatched eggs, 81 nymphs and 10 adults (4 males and 6 females), from 2 rural houses. The transmission risk indicators of Trypanosoma cruzi by P. rufotuberculatus in La Gardenia, were: domiciliary infestation 7.5%, density 2.35, colonization 66.6%, overcrowding 31.33, natural infection 4.6%, and relative infection 2.5%. These results and findings in Peru and Argentina, show that P. rufotuberculatus has a potential success in domiciliation and could some day become an alternate vector of American trypanosomiasis. (+info)
Geometric morphometric differences between Panstrongylus geniculatus from field and laboratory.
The finding of Panstrongylus geniculatus nymphs inside a house in northeastern Antioquia, Colombia, and the reports related to their increasing presence in homes suggest the need for surveillance methods for monitoring the invasion processes. We analyzed the morphological differences between a wild population and its laboratory descendants, using the techniques of geometric morphometry, with the idea that such differences might parallel those between sylvatic and synanthropic populations. The analyses over five generations showed differences in size but not in shape. Head size and wing size were both reduced from sylvatic to laboratory populations, but the decrease in head size occurred only up to the second generation while the decrease in wing size proceeded up to the fifth generation. In contrast, although a decrease in sexual size dimorphism has been proposed as a marker of colonization in human dwellings, we did not detect any significant loss of dimorphism between sexes of P. geniculatus over the five generations studied. We conclude that size changes may have a physiological origin in response to a change of ecotopes, but more than five generations may be required for the expression of permanent morphological markers of human dwellings colonization. (+info)