Platelet activation in patients after an acute coronary syndrome: results from the TIMI-12 trial. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction.
This study was designed to determine the magnitude and time course of platelet activation during therapy of acute coronary syndromes with an oral platelet antagonist. BACKGROUND: Platelet activation and aggregation are central to the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, few data are available on levels of platelet activation over time in patients with ACS, especially in the setting of chronic glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibition. METHODS: The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 12 trial was a phase II, double-blind trial evaluating the effects of sibrafiban, an oral, selective antagonist of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor in patients stabilized after an ACS. A subset of 90 of the 329 patients in the study had measurement of platelet activation as assessed by the expression of platelet associated P-Selectin on days 0, 7 and 28. Platelet activation was measured in blood samples that were fixed either immediately (spontaneous activation) or after 5 minute incubation with 0, 1 microM or 5 microM ADP in order to assess platelet responsiveness to very low or moderate stimulation. RESULTS: At baseline there was a significant elevation of spontaneous platelet activation as compared to samples obtained from normal donors or from patients who did not have acute coronary syndromes (ACS patients 27.6+/-18.7%, Normal controls 8.5+/-4.4%, Patient controls 10.9+/-7.1%, p < 0.005 for both). In addition, there was a significant decrease in the levels of platelet activation with time during the 28 days of treatment with sibrafiban. Nevertheless, even on day 28, the TIMI-12 patients continued to show elevated platelet activation in comparison to the control groups (p < 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that platelets remain activated long after clinical stabilization post ACS. Although platelet activation decreased after one month of oral GPIIb/IIIa inhibition, levels remained higher than normal, suggesting the need for long-term antiplatelet therapy following ACS. (+info)
Slow oxidation of acetoxime and methylethyl ketoxime to the corresponding nitronates and hydroxy nitronates by liver microsomes from rats, mice, and humans.
Acetoxime and methylethyl ketoxime (MEKO) are tumorigenic in rodents, inducing liver tumors in male animals. The mechanisms of tumorigenicity for these compounds are not well defined. Oxidation of the oximes to nitronates of secondary-nitroalkanes, which are mutagenic and tumorigenic in rodents, has been postulated to play a role in the bioactivation of ketoximes. In these experiments, we have compared the oxidation of acetoxime and methylethyl ketoxime to corresponding nitronates in liver microsomes from different species. The oximes were incubated with liver microsomes from mice, rats, and several human liver samples. After tautomeric equilibration and extraction with n-hexane, 2-nitropropane and 2-nitrobutane were quantitated by GC/MS-NCI (limit of detection of 250 fmol/injection volume). In liver microsomes, nitronate formation from MEKO and acetoxime was dependent on time, enzymatically active proteins, and the presence of NADPH. Nitronate formation was increased in liver microsomes of rats pretreated with inducers of cytochrome P450 and reduced in the presence of inhibitors (n-octylamine and diethyldithiocarbamate). Rates of oxidation of MEKO (Vmax) were 1.1 nmol/min/mg (mice), 0.5 nmol/min/mg (humans), and 0.1 nmol/min/mg (rats). In addition to nitronates, several minor metabolites were also enzymatically formed (two diastereoisomers of 3-nitro-2-butanol, 2-hydroxy-3-butanone oxime and 2-nitro-1-butanol). Acetoxime was also metabolized to the corresponding nitronate at rates approximately 50% of those observed with MEKO oxidation in the three species examined. 2-Nitro-1-propanol was identified as a minor product formed from acetoxime. No sex differences in the capacity to oxidize acetoxime and MEKO were observed in the species examined. The observed results show that formation of sec-nitronates from ketoximes occurs slowly, but is not the only pathway involved in the oxidative biotransformation of these compounds. Due to the lack of sex-specific oxidative metabolism, other metabolic pathways or mechanisms of tumorigenicity not involving bioactivation may be involved in the sex-specific tumorigenicity of ketoximes in rodents. (+info)
Applicability of 99mTc-HL91, a putative hypoxic tracer, to detection of tumor hypoxia.
To elucidate the applicability of 99mTc-HL91 (HL91) a putative hypoxic tracer, to the imaging of hypoxia in tumors, a biodistribution study of the tracer was performed. The intratumoral distribution of HL91 was compared with that of 14C-deoxyglucose (DG) and the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in an implanted tumor. METHODS: Biodistribution of HL91 after intravenous injection into Wistar rats with rat mammary tumor (Walker-256) was studied by determining blood and tissue levels of radioactivity from 15 min to 6 h after injection. Dual ex vivo autoradiography was performed on sections of the tumor using HL91 (74 MBq) and DG (185 kBq). The same sections were immunohistologically analyzed with anti-GLUT1 antibody. Tumor tissue was histologically divided into areas of viable cancer cells, necrosis and granulation tissue. The viable cancer cell area was further divided into normoxic and hypoxic areas. Uptake of both tracers in each area was measured quantitatively. The intensity of GLUT1 staining (relative optical density [ROD]) in each area was evaluated by densitometry. RESULTS: The uptake of HL91 in the tumor reached a maximal value (0.897 +/- 0.118% ID [injected dose], mean +/- SD, n = 5) at 120 min after intravenous injection of HL91, then gradually decreased. The tumor-to-muscle ratio continued to increase until 360 min (4.34 at 120 min, 7.01 at 240 min and 10.4 at 360 min). HL91 accumulated to significantly higher levels in the hypoxic area than those in the other tissues (P < 0.0001). Uptake of DG and expression of GLUT1 were significantly higher in the hypoxic area than in the normoxic area (P < 0.0001). In the viable cancer cell area, uptake of HL91 and expression of GLUT1 were strongly correlated (r = 0.624-0.868, mean r = 0.743, P < 0.0001), and DG uptake was moderately correlated with GLUT1 expression (r = 0.328-0.669, mean r = 0.505, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that HL91 can be used to detect tumor hypoxia. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ro 44-3888 after single ascending oral doses of sibrafiban, an oral platelet aggregation inhibitor, in healthy male volunteers.
AIMS: This study constituted the first administration of the oral platelet inhibitor, sibrafiban, to humans. The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ro 44-3888, the active principle of sibrafiban, after single ascending oral doses of sibrafiban. Particular emphasis was placed on intersubject variability of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of Ro 44-3888. METHODS: The study consisted of three parts. Part I was an open ascending-dose study to determine target effect ranges of sibrafiban. Part II, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, addressed the intersubject variability of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of the active principle at a sibrafiban dose achieving an intermediate effect. Part III was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose design covering the complete plasma concentration vs pharmacodynamic response curve of sibrafiban. RESULTS: At sibrafiban doses between 5 mg and 12 mg, the pharmacokinetics of free Ro 44-3888 in plasma were linear whereas those of total Ro 44-3888 were non-linear because of the saturable binding to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa receptor. Saturation of the GP IIb-IIIa receptor was reached at plasma concentrations of 15.9 ng ml-1. At sibrafiban doses up to 2 mg, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by 50%, whereas the inhibition of TRAP-induced platelet aggregation was about 20-30%. At the higher doses, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was almost completely inhibited while a clear dose-response could be observed with TRAP-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation at sibrafiban doses of 5 to 12 mg. Ivy bleeding time increased very steeply with dose with a significant prolongation observed at doses of 5 to 7 mg of sibrafiban (5-7 min, >30 min in one case). At a sibrafiban dose of 12 mg, the stopping criterion for dose escalation (prolongation of the Ivy bleeding time >30 min in three out of four subjects per dose group) was reached. The interindividual coefficients of variation of the integrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters (AUC and AUE) were below 20%, thus lying well within the pre-set level of acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: With a low intersubject variability of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, linear pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects closely related to its plasma concentrations, Ro 44-3888 has good pharmacological prerequisites for a well controllable therapy of secondary prevention of arterial thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (+info)
GC-MS confirmation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in urine.
A procedure for the simultaneous confirmation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. After the addition of nalorphine and naltrexone as the two internal standards, the urine is hydrolyzed overnight with beta-glucuronidase from E. coli. The urine is adjusted to pH 9 and extracted with 8% trifluoroethanol in methylene dichloride. After evaporating the organic, the residue is sequentially derivatized with 2% methoxyamine in pyridine, then with propionic anhydride. The ketone groups on hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and naltrexone are converted to their respective methoximes. Available hydroxyl groups on the O3 and O6 positions are converted to propionic esters. After a brief purification step, the extracts are analyzed by GC-MS using full scan electron impact ionization. Nalorphine is used as the internal standard for codeine, morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine; naltrexone is used as the internal standard for the 6-keto-opioids. The method is linear to 2000 ng/mL for the 6-keto-opioids and to 5000 ng/mL for the others. The limit of quantitation is 25 ng/mL in hydrolyzed urine. Day-to-day precision at 300 and 1500 ng/mL ranged between 6 and 10.9%. The coefficients of variation for 6-acetylmorphine were 12% at both 30 and 150 ng/mL. A list of 38 other basic drugs or metabolites detected by this method is tabulated. (+info)
Nitrile hydratase involved in aldoxime metabolism from Rhodococcus sp. strain YH3-3 purification and characterization.
Nitrile hydratase responsible for aldoxime metabolism from the E-pyridine-3-aldoxime degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain YH3-3 was purified and characterized. Addition of cobalt ion was necessary for the formation of enzyme. The enzyme activity was highly induced not only by nitriles and amides but also by several aldoxime compounds. The enzyme was purified approximately 108-fold with a 16% yield from the cell-free extract of the strain. The native enzyme had a Mr of approximately 130 000 and consisted of two subunits (alpha-subunit, 27 100; beta-subunit, 34 500). The enzyme contained approximately 2 mol cobalt per mol enzyme; it showed a maximum activity at 60 degrees C and at 40 degrees C under the rate assay and end-point assay conditions, respectively, and was stable over a wide range of pH (pH 2.5-11.0). The enzyme had a wide substrate specificity: it acted on aliphatic saturated and unsaturated as well as aromatic nitriles. The N-terminus of the beta-subunit showed good sequence similarities with those of other nitrile hydratases. Nitrile hydratase is part of the metabolic pathway for aldoximes in microorganisms. (+info)
A novel potential application for 99mTc-HMPAO: endothelial cell labeling for in vitro investigation of cell-biomaterial interactions.
Good adherence of endothelial cells (ECs) seeded on vascular prostheses and cell retention under flow conditions are important factors to consider in the use of functionalized prostheses in vascular surgery. Because 111In-oxine radiolabeling presents disadvantages, we wondered whether, because of its well-known physical properties, 99mTc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO or exametazime) could be used. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of unlabeled HMPAO and 99mTc-HMPAO at increasing concentrations and activities was tested on monolayers of the EC line EA-hy-926. The influence of temperature and time on tracer incorporation into cells was also tested. The optimal labeling conditions were applied to evaluate the retention of ECs seeded on polyester grafts under flow conditions by gamma camera detection. RESULTS: The activity of 10 MBq/10(6) cells corresponding to 4.5 microg/10(6) cells of unlabeled HMPAO, applied for 3 h at 37 degrees C (cellular uptake = 18%), was the best compromise between the maintenance of cell viability and metabolic activity and efficient detection by the gamma camera. Spontaneous leakage was observed and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A cell loss of 13% after 180-min exposure to shear stress was obtained. CONCLUSION: Our data thus indicate the feasibility of using such a radiolabeling technique to investigate EC-biomaterial interactions. (+info)
Milameline (CI-979/RU35926): a muscarinic receptor agonist with cognition-activating properties: biochemical and in vivo characterization.
Milameline (E-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, O-methyloxime monohydrochloride, CI-979, PD129409, RU35926) was characterized in vitro and evaluated for effects on central and peripheral cholinergic activity in rats and rhesus monkeys. In muscarinic binding studies, milameline displayed nanomolar affinity with an agonist ligand and micromolar affinity with antagonist ligands, with approximately equal affinities determined at the five subtypes of human muscarinic receptors (hM(1)-hM(5)) with whole cells or membranes from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. On binding, milameline stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in hM(1) and hM(3) CHO cells and inhibited forskolin-activated cAMP accumulation in hM(2) and hM(4) CHO cells. Additionally, it decreased K(+)-stimulated release of [(3)H]acetylcholine from rat cortical slices. Responses were not caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and there was no significant binding to approximately 30 other neurotransmitter binding sites. In rats, milameline decreased spontaneous and scopolamine-induced swimming activity, improved water-maze performance of animals impaired by basal forebrain lesions, increased cortical blood flow, decreased core body temperature, and increased gastrointestinal motility. Electroencephalogram activity in both rats and monkeys was characterized by a predominance of low-voltage desynchronized activity consistent with an increase in arousal. Milameline also reversed a scopolamine-induced impairment of attention on a continuous-performance task in monkeys. Thus, milameline possesses a pharmacological profile consistent with that of a partial muscarinic agonist, with central cholinergic actions being produced in rats and monkeys at doses slightly lower than those stimulating peripheral cholinergic receptors. (+info)