Oligonucleotide-europium complex conjugate designed to cleave the 5' cap structure of the ICAM-1 transcript potentiates antisense activity in cells.
The 5' cap structure of mRNA is a N7 methylated guanosine residue that is linked by a 5'-5' triphosphate linkage to the 5'-terminus of cellular and viral RNAs synthesized by RNA polymerase II. This unique structure facilitates several processes of mRNA metabolism, including splicing, nucleocytoplasmic transport,initiation of translation, and degradation. Previous research has demonstrated that the lanthanide macrocycle complex, Eu(THED)3+, effectively cleaves the 5' cap structure of mRNA in solution by nucleophilic attack of the triphosphate linkage via the metal-activated hydroxyethyl group of the THED ligand. This report shows that attachment of a Eu(THED)3+analog to the 3'-terminus of an antisense oligonucleotide, which targets the 5'-terminus of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA, potentiates the inhibitory activity of the antisense oligonucleotide in cytokine-treatedendothelial cells. (+info)
Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile.
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile. (+info)
Concatemerization of tRNA molecules in the presence of trivaline derivative.
The interaction of tRNA with trivaline dansyl hydrazide trifluoroacetate (DHTV) has been studied. The shape of curves of fluorimetric titration of tRNA with DHTV and vice versa can be explained only by formation of DHTV dimers on tRNA molecules, and subsequent association of DHTV-saturated tRNA molecules with each other. The ability of tRNA molecules to form concatemers in solution in the presence of DHTV has been demonstrated by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy of the tRNA-DHTV complexes stained with uranyl acetate revealed flexible rods 6-7 nm thick and up to several micrometers long. (+info)
Determining anomericity of the glycosidic bond in Zn(II)-diethylenetriamine-disaccharide complexes using MSn in a quadrupole ion trap.
Zinc-diethylenetriamine (Zn-dien) N-glycoside complexes of four 1,4 and four 1,6 linked disaccharides are prepared. Each reaction mixture is ionized by electrospray and the resulting species [Zn(dien)(disaccharide)-H]+ is allowed to undergo collision-induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap. An MS3 analysis is used to differentiate alpha versus beta anomericity of the glycosidic bond in the disaccharide moiety. In addition, the MS2 and MS3 spectra can be used together to determine the linkage position of this glycosidic bond. (+info)
Effects of vanadium complexes with organic ligands on glucose metabolism: a comparison study in diabetic rats.
1. Vanadium compounds can mimic actions of insulin through alternative signalling pathways. The effects of three organic vanadium compounds were studied in non-ketotic, streptozotocin-diabetic rats: vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAc), vanadyl 3-ethylacetylacetonate (VEt), and bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (VM). A simple inorganic vanadium salt, vanadyl sulphate (VS) was also studied. 2. Oral administration of the three organic vanadium compounds (125 mg vanadium element 1(-1) in drinking fluids) for up to 3 months induced a faster and larger fall in glycemia (VAc being the most potent) than VS. Glucosuria and tolerance to a glucose load were improved accordingly. 3. Activities and mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase and L-type pyruvate kinase) which are suppressed in the diabetic liver, were restored by vanadium treatment. The organic forms showed greater efficacy than VS, especially VAc. 4. VAc rats exhibited the highest levels of plasma or tissue vanadium, most likely due to a greater intestinal absorption. However, VAc retained its potency when given as a single i.p. injection to diabetic rats. Moreover, there was no relationship between plasma or tissue vanadium levels and any parameters of glucose homeostasis and hepatic glucose metabolism. Thus, these data suggest that differences in potency between compounds are due to differences in their insulin-like properties. 5. There was no marked toxicity observed on hepatic or renal function. However, diarrhoea occurred in 50% of rats chronically treated with VS, but not in those receiving the organic compounds. 6. In conclusion, organic vanadium compounds, in particular VAc, correct the hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glycolysis of diabetic rats more safely and potently than VS. This is not simply due to improved intestinal absorption, indicating more potent insulin-like properties. (+info)
Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and pharmacokinetics of 111In-antimyosin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
In view of the established role of 111In-antimyosin in the detection of heart muscle pathology, radiation dose estimates were made for this substance. Biodistribution and biokinetic data were obtained from our studies, which failed to show abnormal uptake of 111In-antimyosin in localized sites of skeletal muscle involvement in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: After intravenous administration of 74 MBq (2 mCi) 111In-antimyosin, gamma camera scintigraphy was performed in 12 adult patients with inflammatory muscle disease and in 2 control patients. Six whole-body scans were performed over 72 h, and uptake of 111In-antimyosin in organs was quantified using an attenuation-corrected conjugate counting method. Residence times in source organs were used with MIRDOSE software to obtain radiation dose estimates. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from serial whole-blood and plasma 111In concentrations. RESULTS: The tracer cleared slowly from the circulation, and highest organ uptakes were found in the marrow and liver; kidneys showed the highest concentrations. Uptake was also evident in spleen, the facial image and male genitalia. CONCLUSION: For a typical administered activity of 74 MBq 111In-antimyosin, the kidneys receive the highest dose (58 mSv), and the effective dose is 11 mSv. Radioactivity was cleared from plasma at an average rate of 136 mL/h, and the mean steady-state distribution was approximately 5 L plasma. (+info)
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a delivery system for photosensitizers: implications for photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis.
Photodynamic therapy is a promising new strategy in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Photodynamic therapy for vascular diseases may be improved by the specific delivery of photosensitizers to the atherosclerotic lesion. In this study, we studied whether oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) could be used as a specific carrier for photosensitizers, thereby using the scavenger receptor expressed on macrophages as a target. The photosensitizer aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) was incorporated into OxLDL, and its photodynamic effects were studied. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were incubated with various concentrations of OxLDL-AlPc for different periods. After illumination of the cells with red light, cytotoxicity was observed that was dependent on the time of illumination and incubation. Macrophages incubated with OxLDL-AlPc that were not illuminated revealed no cytotoxicity. The uptake of the OxLDL-AlPc complexes was mediated by scavenger receptors expressed on macrophages. In the presence of the polyanion polyinosinic acid, a specific ligand for scavenger receptors, no cytotoxicity could be observed. Serum incubations of the OxLDL-AlPc complexes revealed that these complexes stay intact after incubation. No redistribution of AlPc to other plasma (lipo-) proteins could be detected, and 80-90% of the AlPc remained associated with the OxLDL particle. These results indicate that OxLDL may function as a specific delivery system for photosensitizers to the scavenger receptors expressed on the macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesion, increasing the beneficial effects of photodynamic therapy for cardiovascular diseases. (+info)
In vitro cell cycle arrest, in vivo action on solid metastasizing tumors, and host toxicity of the antimetastatic drug NAMI-A and cisplatin.
The effects of NAMI-A (imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethyl sulfoxide-tetrachlororuthenate) are compared with cisplatin on tumor cells cultured in vitro at doses of 1 to 100 microM and on tumor metastases in vivo at maximum tolerated doses. Using mouse tumors that metastasize to the lungs, NAMI-A given i.p. for 6 consecutive days at 35 mg/kg/day, was effective independently of the tumor line being treated and of the stage of metastasis growth. Conversely, cisplatin (2 mg/kg/day for 6 days) was as effective as NAMI-A on MCa mammary carcinoma and TS/A adenocarcinoma and less effective than NAMI-A on Lewis lung carcinoma. Cisplatin reduced body weight gain and spleen weight during treatment and was much more toxic than NAMI-A on liver sinusoids, kidney tubules, and lung epithelium. In vitro NAMI-A caused a transient cell cycle arrest of tumor cells in the premitotic G2/M phase, whereas cisplatin caused a progressive dose-dependent disruption of cell cycle phases. Correspondingly, NAMI-A did not modify cell growth, whereas cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction of cell proliferation, as determined by sulforhodamine B test. Thus, NAMI-A, unlike cisplatin, is a potent agent for the treatment of solid tumor metastases as well as when these tumor lesions are in an advanced stage of growth. NAMI-A is endowed with a mechanism of action unrelated to direct tumor cell cytotoxicity, and such mechanism of action is responsible for a reduced host toxicity. (+info)