Treatment of autoimmune premature ovarian failure.
There is no known immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune premature ovarian failure that has been proven safe and effective by prospective randomized placebo-controlled study. Nevertheless, immunosuppression using corticosteroids has been used on an empirical basis for this condition. Here we present two cases of young women with premature ovarian failure who were treated with glucocorticoids in the hopes of restoring fertility. The first case illustrates the potential benefit of such therapy, and the second case illustrates a potential risk. The first patient with histologically proven autoimmune oophoritis was treated with alternate day glucocorticoid treatment. She had return of menstrual bleeding six times and ovulatory progesterone concentrations four times over a 16 week period. The second patient with presumed but unconfirmed autoimmune ovarian failure was referred to us after having been treated with a 9 month course of corticosteroids. During that treatment her menses did not resume. The corticosteroid treatment was complicated by iatrogenic Cushing syndrome and osteonecrosis of the knee. Identifying patients with autoimmune premature ovarian failure presents the opportunity to restore ovarian function by treating these patients with the proper immune modulation therapy. On the other hand, potent immune modulation therapy can have major complications. Corticosteroid therapy for autoimmune premature ovarian failure should be limited to use in placebo-controlled trials designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of such treatment. (+info)
Post-mortem incidental finding of cytomegalovirus oophoritis after an allogeneic stem cell transplant.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a common and serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Its two most frequent manifestations are interstitial pneumonitis and gastroenteritis. We describe here the first reported case of CMV ovarian infection in an allo-SCT recipient. This patient was included in a clinical trial of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with HLA-matched peripheral SCT for metastatic breast cancer. She expired 53 days after transplantation from organ failure unrelated to her CMV oophoritis. (+info)
Xanthogranulomatous oophoritis--a case report.
This is a case of a 25 year old unmarried women who presented with intermittent fever and lower abdominal pain. Laparotomy revealed a large cystic left sided tuboovarian mass adherent to surrounding structures and containing foul smelling fluid. Microscopy showed extensive replacement of the ovary by a chronic inflammatory exudate composed predominantly of foamy macrophages. (+info)
Autoimmune ovarian inflammation triggered by proinflammatory (Th1) T cells is compatible with normal ovarian function in mice.
The detection of noninfectious ovarian inflammation (oophoritis) and serum ovarian autoantibodies in a patient with premature ovarian failure is indicative of an autoimmune etiology. The mechanisms of autoimmune ovarian injury leading to loss of function are currently unknown. In this study we investigated the impact of oophoritis on ovarian function based on two murine autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) models. AOD can be induced by thymectomy at Day 3 after birth (d3tx). D3tx mice develop ovarian inflammation and atrophy with loss of oocytes. In these mice, ovarian atrophy and not oophoritis correlated with abnormal estrous cyclicity. The second AOD model is induced by active immunization of adult mice with a murine ZP3 peptide (pZP3) in adjuvant. After active immunization, the zona pellucida antibody titer, not oophoritis, correlated with reduced fertility. To investigate the effect of oophoritis in the absence of antibody response or ovarian atrophy, pZP3-specific T cells were passively transferred into naive syngeneic mice. This recruited cytokine-producing cells into the ovaries so that elevated cytokine production and its effect on ovarian function could be examined. Recipients of pZP3-specific T cells developed severe granulomatous oophoritis, and the diseased ovaries had elevated ovarian mRNA levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Despite these changes, fertility rates and gonadotropin-induced follicular development remained essentially normal. Therefore, normal ovarian function is compatible with severe ovarian inflammation mediated by autoreactive T cells. (+info)
Persistence of physiological self antigen is required for the regulation of self tolerance.
Endogenous Ag requirement for induction and maintenance of T cell tolerance has been extensively investigated in mice that express a transgenic Ag and/or its cognate transgenic TCR. In contrast, studies on tolerance for physiologically expressed self Ag and normal T cells are limited. Herein, we showed that the murine ovarian-specific ZP3 Ag is detectable from birth. Tolerance to ZP3 is detected in female relative to male mice. In comparison to males, 100-fold more ovarian peptide (pZP3) is required to elicit a comparable pathogenic response in females. Female tolerance to pZP3 was dependent on the presence of endogenous ovarian Ag, because neonatal ovariectomy converted the female response to that of males. Moreover, in female mice that were ovariectomized from the ages of 1-6 wk, the pZP3 responses were enhanced to the male level if ovaries were removed up to 7 days, but not 3 days, before adult challenge with pZP3. Thus, the physiologically expressed ZP3 Ag induces tolerance to pZP3, and the maintenance of tolerance is critically dependent on the continuous presence of the endogenous ovarian Ag. In contrast, exposure to endogenous ovarian Ag confined to the neonatal period is insufficient for the induction and maintenance of tolerance to ZP3. (+info)
Retargeting T cell-mediated inflammation: a new perspective on autoantibody action.
To understand the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune disease requires an appreciation of how the T cell-mediated inflammation is targeted, and how the organ function is compromised. In this study, autoantibody was documented to influence both of these parameters by modulating the distribution of T cell-mediated inflammation. The murine autoimmune ovarian disease is induced by immunization with the ZP3330-342 peptide of the ovarian zona pellucida 3 glycoprotein, ZP3. Passively transferred or actively induced Ab to ZP3335-342 bound to the zona pellucida in the functional and degenerative ovarian follicles, and the ovaries remained histologically normal. Transfer of ZP3330-342 peptide-specific T cells targeted the degenerative follicles and spared the functional follicles, and the resultant interstitial oophoritis was associated with unimpaired ovarian function. Unexpectedly, the coexistence of ZP3330-342 peptide-specific T cells and zona-bound autoantibody led to a dramatic translocation of the ovarian inflammation to the growing and mature ovarian follicles, with destruction of the ovarian functional unit. Ab retargeted both Th1-induced mononuclear inflammation and Th2-induced eosinophilic inflammation, and retargeting was induced by murine and rat polyclonal Abs to multiple distinct native B cell determinants of the zona pellucida. Therefore, by reacting with the native determinants in tissue Ag, Ab alters the distribution of T cell-mediated inflammation, and results in destruction of the functional units of the target organ. We propose that this is a clinically important and previously unappreciated element of Ab action in autoimmune disease. (+info)
Endogenous oocyte antigens are required for rapid induction and progression of autoimmune ovarian disease following day-3 thymectomy.
Female (C57BL/6xA/J)F(1) mice undergoing thymectomy on day 3 after birth (d3tx) developed autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) and autoimmune disease of the lacrimal gland. As both were prevented by normal adult CD25(+) T cells, regulatory T cell depletion is responsible for d3tx diseases. AOD began as oophoritis at 3 wk. By 4 wk, AOD progressed to ovarian atrophy with autoantibody response against multiple oocyte Ag of early ontogeny. The requirement for immunogenic endogenous ovarian Ag was investigated in d3tx female mice, d3tx male mice, and d3tx neonatally ovariectomized (OX) females. At 8 wk, all mice had comparable lacrimalitis but only those with endogenous ovaries developed AOD in ovarian grafts. The duration of Ag exposure required to initiate AOD was evaluated in d3tx mice OX at 2, 3, or 4 wk and engrafted with an ovary at 4, 5, or 6 wk, respectively. The mice OX at 2 wk did not have oophoritis whereas approximately 80% of mice OX at 3 or 4 wk had maximal AOD, thus Ag stimulus for 2.5 wk following d3tx is sufficient. AOD progression requires additional endogenous Ag stimulation from the ovarian graft. In mice OX at 3 wk, ovaries engrafted at 5 wk had more severe oophoritis than ovaries engrafted at 6 or 12 wk; moreover, only mice engrafted at 5 wk developed ovarian atrophy and oocyte autoantibodies. Similar results were obtained in mice OX at 4 wk. Thus endogenous tissue Ag are critical in autoimmune disease induction and progression that occur spontaneously upon regulatory T cell depletion. (+info)
Induction and immunohistology of autoimmune ovarian disease in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
Autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) is a probable cause of human premature ovarian failure, and a potential complication of contraceptive vaccines based on ovarian antigens. The diagnosis depends on detection of noninfectious ovarian inflammation (oophoritis) and serum antibody to ovarian and placental antigens. Mechanisms underlying AOD have been investigated in mice but not in primates. Herein, we report induction of AOD in primates, and compare the immunopathology between monkey and murine AOD. Four cynomolgus macaques immunized with monkey or human zona pellucida 3 peptide (pZP3) in adjuvant, developed T-cell responses to the immunizing peptide and produced antibody that bound to native zona pellucida in vivo. Immunostaining of ovaries from pZP3-immunized macaques showed numerous clusters of T cells co-localized with major histocompatibility complex II-positive macrophages in the ovarian interstitium. Such foci were not detected in untreated or adjuvant-treated control monkeys. This finding is comparable to murine pZP3-induced AOD. However, unlike murine AOD in which numerous granulomatous lesions are detected, severe granulomatous inflammation was detected in only one of three monkeys with abnormal immunohistology. Similar to mice with pZP3-induced AOD, the immunized monkeys retained normal ovarian function. The results are discussed in the context of complications of ZP-based human immunocontraceptive vaccines and case reports of human autoimmune oophoritis. (+info)