Ethylene induces epidermal cell death at the site of adventitious root emergence in rice. (1/72)

In deepwater rice (Oryza sativa), adventitious root primordia initiate at the nodes as part of normal development. Emergence of the roots is dependent on flooding of the plant and is mediated by ethylene action. Root growth was preceded by the induced death of epidermal cells of the node external to the tip of the root primordium. Cell death proceeded until the epidermis split open. Through this crack the root eventually emerged. Induced death was confined to nodal epidermal cells covering the tip of the primordia. Our results suggest that this process facilitates adventitious root emergence and prevents injury to the growing root. Cell death was inducible not only by submergence but also by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the natural precursor of ethylene and it was suppressed in the presence of 2,5-norbornadiene (bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene), an inhibitor of ethylene action. Adventitious root growth and epidermal cell death are therefore linked to the ethylene signaling pathway, which is activated in response to low oxygen stress.  (+info)

Signaling mechanisms for the selective vasoconstrictor effect of norbormide on the rat small arteries. (2/72)

Norbormide (NRB) is a selective vasoconstrictor agent of the rat small vessels. The mechanisms underlying the selective vasoconstrictor effect of NRB are unknown. To investigate whether phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway plays a role in NRB-induced vasoconstriction, we performed experiments in NRB-contracted tissues, namely, rat caudal arteries (RCA) and smooth muscle cells derived from rat mesenteric arteries (MVSMCs). An NRB-insensitive vessel, namely rat aorta (RA), served as a control tissue. In RCA and RA we measured either isometric tension or formation of inositol phosphates (IPs), the latter taken as an index of PLC activation. In MVSMCs, we measured intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt). In the presence of external Ca2+, NRB (2-50 microM) stimulated IPs formation in RCA but not in RA, and increased [Ca2+]cyt in MVSMCs. In the absence of external Ca2+, NRB (50 microM) increased IPs formation in RCA but was unable to increase [Ca2+]cyt in MVSMCs. In RCA, in the presence of external Ca2+, NRB-induced contraction was inhibited by calphostin C (0.2-1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), and by SK&F 96365 (30 microM), an inhibitor of the store-operated calcium channels, but was poorly affected by verapamil, an L-type calcium channel blocker. However, verapamil was much more effective when external Ca2+ was substituted by Sr2+. These results suggest that NRB elicits its tissue and species-selective vasoconstrictor effect by stimulating PLC-PKC pathway and increasing Ca2+ influx through both verapamil-sensitive and -insensitive calcium channels. Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum seems not involved in NRB vasoconstriction.  (+info)

A(1) or A(3) adenosine receptors induce late preconditioning against infarction in conscious rabbits by different mechanisms. (3/72)

We investigated whether activation of A(1) or A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) induces late preconditioning (PC) against infarction in conscious rabbits using the selective AR agonists 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) and N(6)-3-iodobenzyladenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA). In vitro radioligand binding and cAMP assays demonstrated CCPA to be approximately 200- to 400-fold selective for the rabbit A(1)AR and IB-MECA to be approximately 20-fold selective for the rabbit A(3)AR. We observed that (1) pretreatment of rabbits 24 hours earlier with CCPA (100 microgram/kg IV bolus) or IB-MECA (100 or 300 microgram/kg) resulted in an approximately 35% to 40% reduction in the size of the infarct induced by 30 minutes of coronary artery occlusion and 72 hours of reperfusion compared with vehicle-treated rabbits, whereas pretreatment with the selective A(2A)AR agonist CGS 21680 (100 microgram/kg) had no effect; (2) the delayed cardioprotective effect of CCPA, but not that of IB-MECA, was completely blocked by coadministration of the highly selective A(1)AR antagonist N-0861; (3) inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine during the 30-minute occlusion abrogated the infarct-sparing action of CCPA but not that of IB-MECA; and (4) inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels with sodium 5-hydroxydecanoate during the 30-minute occlusion blocked the cardioprotective effects of both CCPA and IB-MECA. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of either A(1)ARs or A(3)ARs (but not A(2A)ARs) elicits delayed protection against infarction in conscious rabbits and that both A(1)AR- and A(3)AR-induced cardioprotection involves opening of K(ATP) channels. However, A(1)AR-induced late PC uses an NOS-dependent pathway whereas A(3)AR-induced late PC is mediated by an NOS-independent pathway.  (+info)

Regulation of the gravitropic response and ethylene biosynthesis in gravistimulated snapdragon spikes by calcium chelators and ethylene inhibitors. (4/72)

The possible involvement of Ca2+ as a second messenger in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) shoot gravitropism, as well as the role of ethylene in this bending response, were analyzed in terms of stem curvature and gravity-induced asymmetric ethylene production rates, ethylene-related metabolites, and invertase activity across the stem. Application of Ca2+ chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, trans-1,2-cyclohexane dinitro-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N',-tetraacetic acid) or a Ca2+ antagonist (LaCl3) to the spikes caused a significant loss of their gravitropic response following horizontal placement. Conversely, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or the agonist Bay K-8644 increased gravibending. Longitudinally halved stem sections had significantly higher amounts of ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, and 1-(malonylamino) cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid compared with vertical controls, with the extra production arising exclusively from the lower half of the stem. trans-1,2-cyclohexane dinitro-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid pretreatment completely abolished the gravity-induced ethylene gradient across the stem, thereby leading to a significant reduction of the curvature. Similarly, reduction of the ethylene produced in the gravistimulated with CoCl2 or inhibition of its action by silver thiosulfate or 2,5-norbornadiene significantly inhibited the subsequent gravibending. Silver thiosulfate and CoCl2 also abolished the gravity-induced gradient of invertase activity across the stem, which is associated with the asymmetric stem elongation. These results suggest that cytosolic Ca2+ may regulate auxin action in snapdragon spikes, manifested as increased ethylene production, which is, in turn, intimately correlated with stem bending. Therefore, both hormones seem to play significant roles in induction and progress of the gravibending of snapdragon spikes.  (+info)

Evidence for the presence of A(1) adenosine receptors in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (5/72)

1. Isolated aortic rings (endothelium-intact and -denuded) from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used in this study to examine the vasoactive effects of various adenosine analogues. 2. In phenylephrine contracted aortic rings, concentration-response curves were constructed by cumulative additions (10(-11) - 10(-5) M) of (2S)-N(6)-[2-endo-Norbornyl] adenosine (ENBA), N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), R-N(6)-(2-phenylisopropyl) adenosine (R-PIA), 2-p-(-2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5'-N-thylcarboxamido adenosine (CGS-21680). 3. A non-specific adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine (CAD) resulted in biphasic response with a small contraction at lower concentrations (10(-9) - 10(-8) M) followed by a significant relaxation at higher concentration in endothelium-intact SHR tissues, suggesting presence of both A(1) and A(2) adenosine receptors in SHR aorta. However, only relaxation was observed in WKY. 4. Contractile response in SHR had the following rank order of potency: ENBA>CPA>R-PIA>CAD. The relaxation response in SHR and WKY had the following rank order of potency: CGS 21680>CAD>R-PIA>CPA>ENBA. 5. Removal of endothelium abolished the adenosine analogue induced contractions in SHR aorta and attenuated the vasorelaxation responses in the WKY and SHR. 6. The contractile response in SHR was abolished by A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist N(6)-endonorbornan-2-yl-9-methyladenine (N-0861). A(2) adenosine receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-proparglyxanthine (DMPX) did not affect the contraction response of adenosine analogues. 7. Endothelium-dependent contractions elicited by A(1) receptor agonists were blocked by indomethacin and by free radical scavengers. 8. These data suggest that the contractile response to adenosine analogues in SHR aorta is probably mediated by free radicals which are generated through the increased cyclo-oxygenase activity occurring in the vascular endothelium of SHR but not the WKY rats.  (+info)

Substrates modulate the rate-determining step for CO binding in cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). A high-pressure stopped-flow study. (6/72)

The high-pressure stopped-flow technique is applied to study the CO binding in cytochrome P450cam (P450cam) bound with homologous substrates (1R-camphor, camphane, norcamphor and norbornane) and in the substrate-free protein. The activation volume DeltaV # of the CO on-rate is positive for P450cam bound with substrates that do not contain methyl groups. The kon rate constant for these substrate complexes is in the order of 3 x 10(6) M(-1) x s(-1). In contrast, P450cam complexed with substrates carrying methyl groups show a negative activation volume and a low kon rate constant of approximately 3 x 10(4) M(-1) x s(-1). By relating kon and DeltaV # with values for the compressibility and the influx rate of water for the heme pocket of the substrate complexes it is concluded that the positive activation volume is indicative for a loosely bound substrate that guarantees a high solvent accessibility for the heme pocket and a very compressible active site. In addition, subconformers have been found for the substrate-free and camphane-bound protein which show different CO binding kinetics.  (+info)

The role of ethylene and wound signaling in resistance of tomato to Botrytis cinerea. (7/72)

Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative disease assays with plants pretreated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene perception, or salicylate; (b) quantitative disease assays with mutants or transgenes affected in the production of or the response to either ethylene or jasmonate; and (c) expression analysis of defense-related genes before and after inoculation of plants with B. cinerea. Plants pretreated with ethylene showed a decreased susceptibility toward B. cinerea, whereas pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, resulted in increased susceptibility. Ethylene pretreatment induced expression of several pathogenesis-related protein genes before B. cinerea infection. Proteinase inhibitor I expression was repressed by ethylene and induced by 1-methylcyclopropene. Ethylene also induced resistance in the mutant Never ripe. RNA analysis showed that Never ripe retained some ethylene sensitivity. The mutant Epinastic, constitutively activated in a subset of ethylene responses, and a transgenic line producing negligible ethylene were also tested. The results confirmed that ethylene responses are important for resistance of tomato to B. cinerea. The mutant Defenseless, impaired in jasmonate biosynthesis, showed increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. A transgenic line with reduced prosystemin expression showed similar susceptibility as Defenseless, whereas a prosystemin-overexpressing transgene was highly resistant. Ethylene and wound signaling acted independently on resistance. Salicylate and ethylene acted synergistically on defense gene expression, but antagonistically on resistance.  (+info)

Ca(2+) entry blocking and contractility promoting actions of norbormide in single rat caudal artery myocytes. (8/72)

1 Aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of norbormide, a selective vasoconstrictor agent of the rat peripheral vessels, on the whole-cell voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca(L))) of freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from the rat caudal artery, using either the conventional or the amphotericin B-perforated whole-cell patch-clamp method. 2 Norbormide decreased L-type Ca(2+) current in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner, without modifying the threshold and the maximum of the current-voltage relationship. Norbormide-induced I(Ca(L)) inhibition was reversible upon wash-out. 3 Norbormide both shifted the voltage dependence of the steady-state inactivation curve to more negative potentials by about 16 mV, without affecting the activation curve, and decreased the slope of inactivation. Norbormide, however, did not modify both the activation and the inactivation kinetics of the I(Ca(L)). 4 Norbormide decreased I(Ca(L)) progressively during repetitive step depolarizations, with inhibition depending on the stimulation frequency (use-dependent block) as well as on the holding potential. 5 Addition of 50 micro M norbormide caused the contraction of all freshly isolated cells and also of those impaled with the perforated method, but not of those impaled with the conventional method (i.e. dialysed). 6 In conclusion, these results prove norbormide to be a vascular L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, which preferentially acts on the inactivated and/or open state of the channel. In rat caudal artery smooth muscle, however, this mechanism does not result in a vasodilating effect since it is overwhelmed by the mechanism underlying norbormide-induced vasoconstriction.  (+info)