Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides.
The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins. (+info)
Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice.
It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice. (+info)
Effect of fasting on temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in rats.
Evidence for temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was recently reported in experimental animals. The role of food in these variations was determined by studying the effect of a short fasting period on the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B. Twenty-eight normally fed and 28 fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Food was available ad libitum to the fed rats, while the fasted animals were fasted 12 h before and 24 h after amphotericin B injection to minimize stress for the animals. Water was available ad libitum to both groups of rats, which were maintained on a 14-h light, 10-h dark regimen (light on at 0600 h). Renal toxicity was determined by comparing the levels of excretion of renal enzyme and the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the time of the maximal (0700 h) or the minimal (1900 h) nephrotoxicity after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of dextrose (5%; control group) or amphotericin B (50 mg/kg of body weight; treated group) to the rats. The nephrotoxicities obtained after amphotericin B administration at both times of day were compared to the nephrotoxicities observed for time-matched controls. In fed animals, the 24-h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was significantly higher when amphotericin B was injected at 0700 and 1900 h. The excretion of these two enzymes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in fasting rats, and this effect was larger at 0700 h (P < 0.05) than at 1900 h. The serum creatinine level was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fed animals treated at 0700 h than in fed animals treated at 1900 h. Fasting reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the increase in the serum creatinine level, and this effect was larger in the animals treated at 0700 h. Similar data were obtained for BUN levels. Amphotericin B accumulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the renal cortexes of fed rats than in those of fasted animals, but there was no difference according to the time of injection. These results demonstrated that fasting reduces the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and that food availability is of crucial importance in the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B in rats. (+info)
Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion.
This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor-mediated antinatriuretic effects. (+info)
In vitro effects of simvastatin on tubulointerstitial cells in a human model of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity.
To investigate the possibility that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMGCoA) reductase inhibitors ameliorate renal disease via direct effects on the tubulointerstitium, primary cultures of human proximal tubule cells (PTC) and renal cortical fibroblasts (CF) were exposed for 24 h to simvastatin (0.1-10 micromol/l) under basal conditions and in the presence of 1,000 ng/ml of cyclosporin (CsA), which we have previously shown to promote in vitro interstitial matrix accumulation at least partially via activation of local cytokine networks. Simvastatin, in micromolar concentrations, engendered cholesterol-independent inhibition of CF and PTC thymidine incorporation and cholesterol-dependent suppression of PTC apical Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) (ethylisopropylamiloride-sensitive apical 22Na+ uptake). Similarly, CF secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 were depressed, whereas CF collagen synthesis ([3H]proline incorporation) and PTC secretion of the fibrogenic cytokines, transforming growth factor-beta1, and platelet-derived growth factor were unaffected. A lower concentration (0.1 micromol/l) of simvastatin did not affect any of the above parameters under basal conditions but completely prevented CsA-stimulated CF collagen synthesis (control, 6.6 +/- 0.6; CsA, 8.3 +/- 0.6; CsA+simvastatin, 6.2 +/- 0.5%; P < 0.05) and IGF-I secretion (89.5 +/- 16.6, 204.7 +/- 57.0, and 94.6 +/- 22.3 ng. mg protein-1. day-1, respectively; P < 0.05). The results suggest that simvastatin exerts direct cholesterol-dependent and -independent effects on the human kidney tubulointerstitium. HMGCoA reductase inhibitors may ameliorate interstitial fibrosis complicating CsA therapy via direct actions on human renal cortical fibroblasts. (+info)
Tissue-specific changes of type 1 angiotensin II receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA in angiotensinogen gene-knockout mice.
This study examined whether type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNAs are regulated during dietary salt loading in angiotensinogen gene-knockout (Atg-/-) mice which are genetically deficient in endogenous production of angiotensin II. Wild-type (Atg+/+) and Atg-/- mice were fed a normal-salt (0.3% NaCl) or a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet for 2 weeks. The mRNA levels were measured by Northern blot analysis. In Atg+/+ mice, concentrations of plasma angiotensin peptides were decreased by salt loading, whereas the treatment increased the brainstem, cardiac, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1 mRNA levels. Salt loading also enhanced renal cortex ACE mRNA levels in Atg+/+ mice. Although plasma angiotensin peptides and urinary aldosterone excretion were not detected in Atg-/- mice, salt loading increased blood pressure in Atg-/- mice. In Atg-/- mice, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1, and renal cortex and intestinal ACE mRNA levels were higher than those in Atg+/+ mice. However, salt loading upregulated AT1 mRNA expression only in the liver of Atg-/- mice, and the treatment did not affect ACE mRNA levels in Atg-/- mice. Furthermore, although the levels of ACE enzymatic activity showed the same trend with the ACE mRNA levels in the lung, renal cortex and intestine of both Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice, the results of radioligand binding assay showed that cardiac expression of AT1 protein was regulated differently from AT1 mRNA expression both in Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice. Thus, expression of AT1 and ACE is regulated by salt loading in a tissue-specific manner that appears to be mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism other than changes in the circulating or tissue levels of angiotensin peptides. (+info)
Hensin remodels the apical cytoskeleton and induces columnarization of intercalated epithelial cells: processes that resemble terminal differentiation.
Intercalated epithelial cells exist in a spectrum of phenotypes; at one extreme, beta cells secrete HCO3 by an apical Cl/HCO3 exchanger and a basolateral H+ ATPase. When an immortalized beta cell line is seeded at high density it deposits in its extracellular matrix (ECM) a new protein, hensin, which can reverse the polarity of several proteins including the Cl/HCO3 exchanger (an alternately spliced form of band 3) and the proton translocating ATPase. When seeded at low density and allowed to form monolayers these polarized epithelial cells maintain the original distribution of these two proteins. Although these cells synthesize and secrete hensin, it is not retained in the ECM, but rather, hensin is present in a large number of intracellular vesicles. The apical cytoplasm of low density cells is devoid of actin, villin, and cytokeratin19. Scanning electron microscopy shows that these cells have sparse microvilli, whereas high density cells have exuberant apical surface infolding and microvilli. The apical cytoplasm of high density cells contains high levels of actin, cytokeratin19, and villin. The cell shape of these two phenotypes is different with high density cells being tall with a small cross-sectional area, whereas low density cells are low and flat. This columnarization and the remodeling of the apical cytoplasm is hensin-dependent; it can be induced by seeding low density cells on filters conditioned by high density cells and prevented by an antibody to hensin. The changes in cell shape and apical cytoskeleton are reminiscent of the processes that occur in terminal differentiation of the intestine and other epithelia. Hensin is highly expressed in the intestine and prostate (two organs where there is a continuous process of differentiation). The expression of hensin in the less differentiated crypt cells of the intestine and the basal cells of the prostate is similar to that of low density cells; i.e., abundant intracellular vesicles but no localization in the ECM. On the other hand, as in high density cells hensin is located exclusively in the ECM of the terminally differentiated absorptive villus cells and the prostatic luminal cell. These studies suggest that hensin is a critical new molecule in the terminal differentiation of intercalated cell and perhaps other epithelial cells. (+info)
Tretinoin prevents age-related renal changes and stimulates antioxidant defenses in cultured renal mesangial cells.
Age-related progressive glomerular sclerosis in the rat is associated with increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-beta1 and increased protein content in the renal cortex, enhanced production of H2O2, in both renal glomeruli and mesangial cells (MCs) cultured from them, as well as augmented glomerular oxidative damage. We have previously shown that tretinoin-treated old male Fischer 344 rats have 30% lower protein content in the renal cortex than control old rats. Here, we report that this effect may depend on the inhibition of the expression of tumor necrosis factor-beta1, a matrigenic cytokine, and osteopontin, a protein with cell adhesive and chemotactic properties. In addition, we show that tretinoin prevents the cytotoxicity of H2O2 in cultured human MCs by increasing both the catalase activity and the reduced glutathione content, which are dose- and time-dependent changes. These increases were not dependent on each other: when these effects were previously inhibited with 3-amino-1,2,4-atriazole or L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, respectively, tretinoin still induced the increase of the other noninhibited antioxidant defense. An enhanced gene transcription is the most likely mechanism involved in the tretinoin-induced stimulation of MC antioxidant defense systems because 1) preincubation of MCs with actinomycin D or cycloheximide fully abolished it; 2) tretinoin-incubated MCs showed increased levels of catalase mRNA and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (catalytic subunit) mRNA, the latter being the rate-limiting step in de novo reduced glutathione synthesis; and 3) the stability of both mRNA was unchanged by tretinoin. These results show one strategy of protecting renal cells from H2O2-mediated injury based on increasing their antioxidant defenses. (+info)