The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy.
In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC. (+info)
Prevalence of angiographic atherosclerotic renal artery disease and its relationship to the anatomical extent of peripheral vascular atherosclerosis.
BACKGROUND: Recognition of the possible presence of atherosclerotic renal artery disease (ARAD) is important because of its progressive nature, and because of the potential for precipitating an acute deterioration in renal function by administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of ARAD in patients undergoing peripheral angiography and its relationship to the extent of their peripheral vascular disease (PVD). METHODS: The reports of the 218 patients who underwent peripheral angiography to investigate PVD in one centre in a calendar year, and in whom it was possible to image the renal arteries, were analysed retrospectively. The presence of atherosclerotic disease in the renal, aortic, iliac, femoral and distal areas was recorded for each patient. RESULTS: The prevalence of ARAD was 79/218 (36.2%). The greater the number of atherosclerotic areas of the arterial tree, the higher the prevalence of ARAD. Patients with aortic disease and bilateral iliac, femoral and distal vessel disease had the highest incidence of ARAD 19/38 (50%). The incidence of ARAD in those with femoral artery atherosclerosis was significantly higher than in those without femoral artery atherosclerosis (42.1% compared with 9.7%, P=0.001 chi2). There was no significant difference in those groups with or without iliac and distal disease. None of the 11 patients with normal femoral and iliac arteries had ARAD. CONCLUSIONS: Renal artery atherosclerosis is a common occurrence in patients with PVD. If extensive PVD is recognized during aortography, a high flush should be considered to examine the renal arteries, if they are not included in the main study. (+info)
The intrarenal vascular lesions associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.
Even 10 yr after the identification of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in the course of APS is still relatively unrecognized, and is probably underestimated. The association of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant with the development of a vaso-occlusive process involving numerous organs is now confirmed. In a multicenter study, 16 cases of "primary" APS (PAPS) were found and followed for 5 yr or more, all with renal biopsy. In all 16 cases of PAPS, there was a vascular nephropathy characterized by small vessel vaso-occlusive lesions associated with fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries (12 patients), recanalizing thrombi in arteries and arterioles (six patients), and focal cortical atrophy (10 patients). In combination, these led to progressive destruction of the kidney, accelerated by acute glomerular and arteriolar microangiopathy in five patients. Focal cortical atrophy is a distinctive lesion, present in 10 biopsies, and likely represents the histologic and functional renal analogue to the multiple cerebral infarcts detected on imaging studies. The clinical hallmark of this vascular nephropathy in PAPS is systemic hypertension, only variably associated with renal insufficiency, proteinuria, or hematuria. The ensemble of histologic renal lesions defined in this study should aid in the separation of the lesions found in cases of secondary APS, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, into those lesions related to APS and those related to the underlying disease. (+info)
Hypotensive response to captopril: a potential pitfall of scintigraphic assessment for renal artery stenosis.
A characteristic pattern seen on captopril renography is described that is due to systemic hypotensive response. Most patients with these findings on captopril renography do not receive renal artery angiograms in our clinic because it is usually recognized. However, this pattern has received little attention in the medical literature and may be misinterpreted as being due to physiologically significant renal artery hypertension. METHODS: Over the last 3 y, renal artery angiograms were performed on three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. This allowed a unique opportunity to correlate the results of the captopril renogram with the renal artery angiograms in this patient population. Captopril renography was performed with a glomerular filtration agent, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a tubular agent, o-iodohipurate (OIH). RESULTS: Renal artery angiograms showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis in three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. Systemic hypotension on captopril renograms results in preserved uptake of both DTPA and OIH and hyperconcentration in the cortex and collecting system. CONCLUSION: The systemic hypotensive response pattern seen on captopril renography is a distinctive pattern that does not represent physiologically significant renal artery stenosis. (+info)
Value of captopril renal scintigraphy in hypertensive patients with renal failure.
The aims of this study were to show the value of captopril renal scintigraphy for detecting a renovascular cause in hypertensive patients with renal failure and to assess the ability to predict the beneficial effect of revascularization on renal function. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with renal failure (mean glomerular filtration rate = 35 mL/min) underwent renal scintigraphy after injection of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine. Baseline scintigraphy was performed, and the test was repeated 24 h later after oral administration of 50 mg captopril given 60 min before the test. RESULTS: In 5 of 6 patients with a renovascular cause for renal failure, and 2 of 3 patients with a probable arterial pathology, scintigraphy had a high probability. The result was indeterminate in the other 2 patients. In 5 of 11 patients with negative arteriography and 14 of 18 patients with probable absence of renovascular pathology, we found a low probability of functional renal artery stenosis. Six revascularization procedures were performed and were predictive of a beneficial effect in 5 patients. Time of peak activity was an effective predictor in each case. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients with renal failure, captopril renal scintigraphy can detect hemodynamic dysfunction downstream from a renal artery stenosis and can predict the beneficial effect of revascularization in some cases. (+info)
Renal artery stenosis treated with stent deployment: indications, technique, and outcome for 108 patients.
From January 1993 to May 1996, 108 patients (64 men, 44 women; mean age, 72 years; age range, 37 to 87 years) underwent 125 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties and stent implantations primarily for atherosclerotic lesions of the renal artery. Sixty-four patients underwent treatment for renovascular hypertension (two antihypertensive medications or more), 32 patients underwent treatment for a combination of hypertension and renal failure (serum creatinine level >/=1.6 mg/dL), and a small group of six patients (5%) without hypertension or diminished renal function underwent treatment to prevent the progression to renal artery occlusion and kidney loss. Thirty-three patients (31%) had renovascular hypertension that was classified as severe on three or more medications, 31 patients (29%) had renovascular hypertension that was classified as moderate on two medications, and 38 patients (35%) had renovascular hypertension that was classified in the mild group on a single antihypertensive agent. Stenotic lesions were located at the ostium of the renal artery in 82 cases (65%) and were ostial-adjacent (<5 mm from renal ostium) in the other 43 cases (34%). A total of 125 stents were deployed in 125 arteries (procedural success 97.6%). Renovascular hypertension either was cured or was improved in 73 patients (68%), with 14 patients (13%) considered cured (normotensive on no medications). The conditions of 29 patients (27%) were unchanged, and 6 patients (5%) had worsening hypertension after surgery. We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in serum creatinine levels after renal artery balloon angioplasty/stenting. Complications occurred in a total of nine cases (7.2%), six of which were related to technical problems. One patient had worsening renal insufficiency caused by contrast agent, and another patient had a perinephric hematoma develop that necessitated evacuation. There were four postoperative deaths (30-day mortality). Two of these deaths were caused by postoperative myocardial infarction. The other two patients had progressive renal failure develop that necessitated dialysis. These patients later died of the disease process despite supportive care. Follow-up renal artery duplex scan studies and angiograms were available on 96 patients (76%). The mean peak systolic renal/aortic ratio on duplex scanning was 2.2. Life-table analysis yielded a 74% primary patency rate and an 85% secondary patency rate at 36 months. This retrospective analysis showed the effectiveness of combining percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent deployment for significant renal artery stenosis to treat renovascular hypertension. (+info)
Hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome with renal ischemia: an underrecognized disorder.
Renal artery stenosis or occlusion causing the hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome has been rarely reported. Our impression, however, was that the disorder is not uncommon. Case records from patients in one city (population 350 000) presenting between 1980 and 1997 with hypertension, hyponatremia, and evidence of renal ischemia were scrutinized. Thirty-two patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were identified. Admission supine arterial pressures were high (mean 228/124 mm Hg), but there was a vigorous fall in pressure on standing (26/12.7 mm Hg recorded in 27 patients). Mean plasma concentrations of sodium (129.7 mmol/L) and potassium (2.7 mmol/L) were low, and 24-hour urine protein excretion was elevated in 19 of 26 patients. Twenty-two of the 32 patients were female, the majority were asthenic, and all but 5 were smokers. Symptoms precipitating hospitalization were headache, clouding of consciousness, confusion, weakness, weight loss, thirst, and polyuria. Plasma renin levels, measured in 20 patients, were elevated in most cases and correlated inversely (r=-0.63, P<0.01) with the plasma sodium concentration. The hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome in patients with renal ischemia is not rare: Rather, it is underreported. It tends to affect elderly asthenic women who smoke heavily. Stimulation of renin release from the ischemic kidney is probably central to the pathophysiology. The syndrome deserves better recognition to ensure appropriate investigations and management. (+info)
Management of renovascular disease: a review of renal artery stenting in ten studies.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of renal artery stents in renovascular disease, we identified 10 descriptive studies containing sufficient information for systematic evaluation. No randomized comparisons of stenting with angioplasty or with surgery were found. Overall, stents were placed in 416 renal arteries in 379 patients, mean age 64 years (range 27-84), 56% male. Of the stenoses, 97% were atheromatous (inter-study range 71-100%), 80% ostial (22-100%) and 31% bilateral (12-87%). The clinical indication for stenting was usually hypertension with or without mild renal impairment. Radiological indications for stenting were: narrowing of > or = 50% (in 9/10 studies) as a result of elastic recoil (58%) or dissection (2%) at the time of angioplasty; restenosis some time after angioplasty (15%); or as a primary procedure (25%). Technical success was reported in 96-100% of procedures. Restenosis (> or = 50% narrowing), evaluated in 312/416 (75%) arteries, generally between 6 and 12 months, was 16% overall. Hypertension was cured by stenting (DBP < or = 90 mmHg on no treatment) in 34/379 (9%) overall and in 34/207 (16%) of those whose renal function was normal initially. Six of 379 (1.6%) patients died within 30 days of stenting, but in only two (0.5%) was death judged to be procedure-related. Complications, other than those which led to dialysis, occurred in 42/379 (13%) patients, one third requiring intervention, ranging from blood transfusion to a surgical bypass procedure. Renal function as judged by serum creatinine concentration (SCC) improved in 26%, stabilized in 48% and deteriorated in 26% of patients whose renal function was impaired initially (SCC > 133 mumol/l). In one study, with average baseline SCC > 200 mumol/l, successful stenting slowed the rate of progression of renal failure when renal function was deteriorating beforehand. Nine of 379 (2.4%) patients, including 7/14 (50%) whose SCC was > or = 400 mumol/l initially, required dialysis after stenting. Stenting should be offered by specialist centres as a secondary procedure for unsuccessful angioplasty, or restenosis following angioplasty, to patients with renovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension, advancing renal failure or pulmonary oedema. (+info)