Eotaxin contributes to renal interstitial eosinophilia.
BACKGROUND: A potent eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, human eotaxin, is directly chemotactic for eosinophils. Therefore, the specific expression of eotaxin in tissue might play a crucial role in tissue eosinophilia. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in human renal diseases remains to be investigated. We evaluated the role of eotaxin in the pathogenesis of human diffuse interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. METHODS: In this study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers. 56 patients with primary or secondary glomerular diseases and two hypereosinophilic syndrome patients without renal involvement. Urinary and serum eotaxin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected the presence of eotaxin protein immunohistochemically. RESULTS: On the one hand, urinary levels of eotaxin were significantly higher before the initiation of glucocorticoid administration in the patient with interstitial nephritis with marked infiltration of eosinophils. On the other hand, urinary eotaxin levels were not detected in any patients with nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis without eosinophils, hypereosinophilic syndrome without renal involvement or other renal diseases. Serum eotaxin levels were not detected in any of the patients. Therefore, the detection of eotaxin in the urine was specific for renal interstitial eosinophilia. Moreover, endothelial cells, infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells in the tubulointerstitial lesions were immunostained with specific anti-eotaxin antibodies. Furthermore, the elevated urinary levels of eotaxin decreased dramatically during glucocorticoid-induced convalescence. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in situ expression of eotaxin may provide a new mechanism to explain the renal interstitial eosinophil infiltration. (+info)
Glomerular, tubular and interstitial nephritis associated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Evidence of a common mechanism.
AIMS: To study the mechanisms behind NSAID-associated nephropathy. METHODS: Analysis of published case reports satisfying strict criteria for NSAID nephropathy. RESULTS: Ninety-seven cases with acute nephritis (AN; 19 patients), minimal change nephropathy (MC; 38 patients), membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN; 19 patients), focal sclerosis (FS; 13 patients) and other glomerulonephritis subgroups (8 patients) were identified. Hypersensitivity reactions were seen in all groups, most often in AN. Proteinuria was more severe in MC and FS than in MGN and unrelated to amount of glomerular deposits. The mean NSAID treatment time was 1.7 months in AN, 8.2 months in MC and 39 months in MGN and associated with amount of glomerular deposits, fusion of podocytes and proteinuria, and inversely associated with hypersensitivity, interstitial damage and renal failure. Rheumatic diseases were common in MGN. At follow-up 68 of 72 patients who had discontinued NSAID treatment had improved, 57 with normal renal function. CONCLUSIONS: NSAID nephropathy may be caused by hypersensitivity. The reaction is milder than in drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, probably because the offending drug inhibits the inflammatory reaction it has started itself. Heavy proteinuria is probably due to lymphokines produced as a result of the immunological response. If the allergic reaction is strong, AN is produced rapidly with severe renal failure but little proteinuria; if it is less violent, immunocompetent cells may develop to produce lymphokines and proteinuria. Immune complexes may be formed eventually, secondary to the increased glomerular permeability, more easily in patients with a hyperactive immune system and with little consequence for renal function. (+info)
Antiproteinuric therapy while preventing the abnormal protein traffic in proximal tubule abrogates protein- and complement-dependent interstitial inflammation in experimental renal disease.
In proteinuric glomerulopathies, the excess traffic of proteins into the renal tubule is a candidate trigger of interstitial inflammatory and immune events leading to progressive injury, and a key target for the renoprotective action of antiproteinuric drugs. Among proteins trafficked to the proximal tubule, the third component of complement (C3) can be activated locally and contribute to inflammation at sites of protein reabsorption. Experiments were performed in rats with renal mass reduction (RMR, 5/6 nephrectomy) with the following aims: (1) to study Ig (IgG) and complement deposition in proximal tubules, and interstitial macrophage infiltration and MHC class II expression at intervals after surgery by double immunofluorescence analysis; (2) to assess whether lisinopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEi], 25 mg/L in the drinking water, from either day 1 or day 7) limited IgG and C3 accumulation and interstitial inflammation at day 30. In 7-d remnant kidneys, intracellular staining for both IgG and C3 was detectable in proximal tubules in focal areas; C3 was restricted to IgG-positive tubular cells, and there were no interstitial ED-1 macrophage and MHC II-positive cellular infiltrates. In 14-d and 30-d remnant kidneys, proximal tubular IgG and C3 staining was associated with the appearance of interstitial infiltrates that preferentially localized to areas of tubules positive for both proteins. RMR rats given ACEi had no or limited increases in levels of urinary protein excretion, tubular IgG, and C3 reactivity, and interstitial cellular infiltrates in kidneys at 30 d, even when ACEi was started from day 7 after surgery. These findings document that (1) in RMR, IgG and C3 accumulation in proximal tubular cells is followed by leukocyte infiltration and MHC II overexpression in the adjacent interstitium; (2) ACEi while preventing proteinuria limits both tubular accumulation of IgG and C3 and interstitial inflammation. The data suggest that ACE inhibition can be renoprotective by limiting the early abnormal protein traffic in proximal tubule and consequent deleterious effects of excess protein reabsorption, including the accumulation and local activation of complement as well as the induction of chemokines and endothelin genes known to promote interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. (+info)
Binding of human neutrophils to cell-surface anchored Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein in tubulointerstitial nephritis.
BACKGROUND: Human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (T-H) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein exposed at the surface of distal nephron cells, and urinary T-H is the released soluble counterpart. The latter has been implicated in tubulointerstitial nephritis, and the proinflammatory potential has been related to its ability to bind in vitro human neutrophils (PMNs). We have examined the conditions required for the binding of neutrophils to cell-surface anchored T-H and the consequent effects. METHODS: A HeLa cell-line derivative permanently transformed with human T-H cDNA and expressing T-H at the cell surface was used throughout the study. The adhesion of PMNs to cells expressing T-H was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy before and after the opsonization of cells with anti-T-H antibodies. The oxidative burst induced by adhesion of PMNs to the cells was determined by the activation of myeloperoxidase. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the release of T-H under the adhesion of activated PMNs were determined by dot-blot and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: No binding of neutrophils to cell-surface-anchored T-H was observed. On the contrary, the opsonization of cells with anti-T-H antibodies resulted in a dramatic adhesion of neutrophils. Such an adhesion induced the oxidative burst of PMNs and a large increment in the release of T-H, as well as the release of the slightly faster migrating T-H form, which is normally retained intracellularly. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the notion that, after the autoimmune response, the adhesion of neutrophils to cell-surface T-H contributes to the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis, favoring a further accumulation of T-H in the interstitium and inducing the loss of cell integrity via reactive oxygen metabolites generated by activated neutrophils. (+info)
High water intake ameliorates tubulointerstitial injury in rats with subtotal nephrectomy: possible role of TGF-beta.
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that tubulointerstitial injury correlates well with a decline of renal function. In this study, we investigated the effect of high water intake (HWI) on functional and structural parameters in rats with subtotal nephrectomy. METHODS: Two weeks after the ablative procedure, rats were divided into two groups. One group received the treatment with HWI (3% sucrose added to drinking water) for eight weeks. Functional parameters were compared with sham-operated control (CONT) or nephrectomized rats without treatment (NX). Remnant kidneys were then assessed histologically for evidence of interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was significantly improved in HWI rats compared with NX rats. Simultaneously, urinary protein was also significantly reduced in HWI rats. HWI predominantly ameliorated interstitial lesions and, to a lesser extent, glomerular lesions. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in HWI rats. In situ hybridization revealed that HWI suppressed TGF-beta mRNA expression mainly in the outer medulla. Fibronectin mRNA was also reduced by the HWI treatment. The changes in TGF-beta and fibronectin mRNA were in parallel with Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) mRNA, which is regulated by extracellular osmolarity. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that protein expression of TGF-beta and fibronectin coincided with the mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HWI reduces TGF-beta mRNA expression in medullary interstitium and ameliorates tubulointerstitial injury in rats with reduced renal mass. (+info)
Cynomolgus polyoma virus infection: a new member of the polyoma virus family causes interstitial nephritis, ureteritis, and enteritis in immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys.
Polyoma virus infection causes acute interstitial nephritis and ureteral stenosis in humans but has rarely been noted in other species. In the present study, a hitherto unknown polyoma virus was detected in 12 of 57 cynomolgus monkeys after 3 to 11 weeks of immunosuppression given to promote acceptance of renal allografts or xenografts. This virus, termed cynomolgus polyoma virus (CPV), is antigenically and genomically related to simian virus 40 (SV40). The tubular epithelial nuclei of the collecting ducts in the medulla and cortex reacted with an antibody for the SV40 large T antigen and by electron microscopy contained densely packed paracrystalline arrays of 30- to 32-nm diameter viral particles. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA extracted from affected kidneys detected polyoma virus sequences using primers for a highly conserved region of the large T antigen of polyoma virus. Sequence analysis showed 7 base substitutions and 3 to 5 deletions in the 129-nucleotide segment of amplified products, compared with the corresponding portion of SV40, yielding 84% homology at the amino acid level. CPV caused interstitial nephritis in six renal allografts, a xenograft kidney, and six native kidneys. Infected animals showed renal dysfunction and had tubulointerstitial nephritis with nuclear inclusions, apoptosis, and progressive destruction of collecting ducts. CPV was detected in the urothelium of graft ureters, associated with ureteritis and renal infection. Viral infection was demonstrable in smooth muscle cells of the ureteric wall, which showed apoptosis. One animal had diarrhea and polyoma virus infection in the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria of the intestine. Spontaneous resolution occurred in one case; no animal had virus detected in tissues more than 3 months after transplantation. Thus, immunosuppression predisposes cynomolgus monkeys to a polyoma virus infection with clinical consequences quite similar to BK virus infection in humans, including renal dysfunction. We also suggest that this may be the pathogenetic basis for the significant incidence of late onset, isolated ureteral stenosis observed in these recipients. (+info)
Renal changes associated with naproxen sodium administration in cynomolgus monkeys.
Naproxen sodium was administered to cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by oral gavage at daily doses of 44, 88, or 176 mg/kg for 2 wk (2 monkeys/gender) or of 44 mg/kg for 13 wk (4 monkeys/gender). Body weight loss occurred in at least one monkey in all naproxen sodium-dosed groups in the 2-wk (up to 16% loss) and 13-wk (up to 22% loss) studies. Increases in plasma naproxen concentrations were dose proportional between 44 and 88 mg/kg but were less than dose proportional between 88 and 176 mg/kg. Up to 2-fold increases in creatinine and/or serum urea nitrogen values as well as higher renal weights occurred in monkeys receiving 176 mg/kg for 2 wk or 44 mg/kg for 13 wk. Microscopically, renal changes were observed in all naproxen sodium-dosed groups. Renal findings after 2 wk of exposure included increased interstitial ground substance, tubular dilatation, and tubulointerstitial nephritis; in the 13-wk study, cortical tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were also observed. These studies identify the kidney as the target organ of naproxen sodium in cynomolgus monkeys. (+info)
Crescentic glomerulonephritis: a clinicopathologic analysis of 17 cases with emphasis on glomerular and interstitial neutrophil infiltration.
In order to determine the extent to which specific forms of glomerulonephritis (GN) contribute to the pool of crescentic GN, renal tissues from 17 crescentic GN patients were examined with special attention to glomerular and interstitial neutrophil infiltration. Renal tissues from five normal kidneys served as normal controls. Renal biopsy tissues from five patients with postinfectious GN in which crescent formation was not observed were also examined as disease controls. The patients were put into both three groups according to immunofluorescence findings and two groups according to the active or inactive phase of the crescents: group 1 with anti-glomerular basement membrane crescentic GN, one case; group 2 with immune complex crescentic GN, ten cases; and group 3 with pauci-immune crescentic GN, six cases. Four of the nine individuals tested were positive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (44.4%). Glomerular and interstitial neutrophil infiltrations were prominent in both the active and inactive phase groups, compared to normal controls (p<.05). Glomerular neutrophil infiltration was significantly prominent in the active phase group, compared to the inactive phase group (p<.001). In both the active and inactive phase groups, interstitial neutrophil infiltration was prominent, compared to disease control groups (p<.05). These results support the concept of the participation of periglomerular leukocytes in the renal tissue damage of crescentic GN, although the role of neutrophils was not examined. (+info)