Fas on renal parenchymal cells does not promote autoimmune nephritis in MRL mice.
BACKGROUND: Although Fas on pancreatic islets promotes autoimmune diabetes in mice, the role of Fas expression on kidney parenchymal cells during autoimmune disease is unknown. METHODS: To determine whether Fas on renal parenchymal cells promotes autoimmune renal destruction, we compared apoptosis and pathology in Fas-intact and Fas-deficient kidneys in an autoimmune milieu. For this purpose, we transplanted single, normal kidneys from MRL-++ (Fas-intact) mice (3 months of age) into age-matched, congenic MRL-Faslpr (Fas-deficient) recipients after removal of nephritic kidneys. These Fas-intact kidneys were compared with Fas-deficient nephritic kidneys. RESULTS: There is a progressive increase of FasL on kidney-infiltrating cells and Fas and FasL on renal parenchymal cells in MRL-++ kidneys during engraftment (0, 2, 4-6, and 8 weeks). By comparison, we detected an increase in FasL in MRL-Faslpr kidneys (3 to 5 months of age), whereas Fas was not detectable. The engagement of T cells bearing FasL with Fas expressing tubular epithelial cells (TECs) induced TEC apoptosis in vitro. However, apoptosis and pathology were similar in kidneys (MRL-++, 8 weeks postengraftment vs. MRL-Faslpr, 5 months) with equivalent amounts of FasL-infiltrating cells or FasL TECs, regardless of Fas on renal parenchymal cells. CONCLUSION: The expression of Fas on renal parenchymal cells does not increase apoptosis or promote renal disease in MRL-++ mice. We speculate that the autoimmune milieu evokes mechanisms that mask, counter, or pre-empt Fas-FasL-initiated apoptosis in MRL kidneys. (+info)
Glomerular, tubular and interstitial nephritis associated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Evidence of a common mechanism.
AIMS: To study the mechanisms behind NSAID-associated nephropathy. METHODS: Analysis of published case reports satisfying strict criteria for NSAID nephropathy. RESULTS: Ninety-seven cases with acute nephritis (AN; 19 patients), minimal change nephropathy (MC; 38 patients), membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN; 19 patients), focal sclerosis (FS; 13 patients) and other glomerulonephritis subgroups (8 patients) were identified. Hypersensitivity reactions were seen in all groups, most often in AN. Proteinuria was more severe in MC and FS than in MGN and unrelated to amount of glomerular deposits. The mean NSAID treatment time was 1.7 months in AN, 8.2 months in MC and 39 months in MGN and associated with amount of glomerular deposits, fusion of podocytes and proteinuria, and inversely associated with hypersensitivity, interstitial damage and renal failure. Rheumatic diseases were common in MGN. At follow-up 68 of 72 patients who had discontinued NSAID treatment had improved, 57 with normal renal function. CONCLUSIONS: NSAID nephropathy may be caused by hypersensitivity. The reaction is milder than in drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, probably because the offending drug inhibits the inflammatory reaction it has started itself. Heavy proteinuria is probably due to lymphokines produced as a result of the immunological response. If the allergic reaction is strong, AN is produced rapidly with severe renal failure but little proteinuria; if it is less violent, immunocompetent cells may develop to produce lymphokines and proteinuria. Immune complexes may be formed eventually, secondary to the increased glomerular permeability, more easily in patients with a hyperactive immune system and with little consequence for renal function. (+info)
Interleukin-1 stimulates Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase by an arachidonate-dependent mechanism in mesangial cells.
BACKGROUND: We have studied interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated signals and gene expression in mesangial cells (MCs) to identify molecular mechanisms of MC activation, a process characteristic of glomerular inflammation. The JNK1 pathway has been implicated in cell fate decisions, and IL-1 stimulates the Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK1/SAPK). However, early postreceptor mechanisms by which IL-1 activates these enzymes remain unclear. Free arachidonic acid (AA) activates several protein kinases, and because IL-1 rapidly stimulates phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity release AA, IL-1-induced activation of JNK1/SAPK may be mediated by AA release. METHODS: MCs were grown from collagenase-treated glomeruli, and JNK/SAPK activity in MC lysates was determined using an immunocomplex kinase assay. RESULT: Treatment of MCs with IL-1 alpha induced a time-dependent increase in JNK1/SAPK kinase activity, assessed by phosphorylation of the activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). Using similar incubation conditions, IL-1 also increased [3H]AA release from MCs. Pretreatment of MCs with aristolochic acid, a PLA2 inhibitor, concordantly reduced IL-1-regulated [3H]AA release and JNK1/SAPK activity, suggesting that cytosolic AA in part mediates IL-1-induced JNK1/SAPK activation. Addition of AA stimulated JNK1/SAPK activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was AA specific, as only AA and its precursor linoleic acid stimulated JNK1/SAPK activity. Other fatty acids failed to activate JNK1/SAPK. Pretreatment of MCs with specific inhibitors of AA oxidation by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase had no effect on either IL-1- or AA-induced JNK1/SAPK activation. Furthermore, stimulation of MCs with the exogenous cyclooxygenase-, lipoxygenase-, phosphodiesterase-, and epoxygenase-derived arachidonate metabolites, in contrast to AA itself, did not activate JNK1/SAPK. CONCLUSION: We conclude that IL-1-stimulated AA release, in part, mediates stimulation of JNK1/SAPK activity and that AA activates JNK1/SAPK by a mechanism that does not require enzymatic oxygenation. JNK1 signaling pathway components may provide molecular switches that mediate structural rearrangements and biochemical processes characteristic of MC activation and could provide a novel target(s) for therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Detection of urinary macrophages expressing the CD16 (Fc gamma RIII) molecule: a novel marker of acute inflammatory glomerular injury.
BACKGROUND: The CD16 antigen is the Fc gamma receptor III. CD14+CD16+ cells are proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages (Mo/M phi) that constitute a minor population in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Little is known about the expression of CD16 antigen on Mo/M phi in glomerulonephritis. METHODS: Flow cytometric analyses were performed on urine and blood samples obtained from 209 patients with various renal diseases. Patients variously suffered from rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis (RPGN), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), postinfectious acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), lupus nephritis (LN), acute interstitial nephritis, hereditary nephropathy, idiopathic renal hematuria (IRH), and renal stone. RESULTS: The CD16+ M phi population of cells was present in the urine of hematuria-positive patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis, including AGN, IgAN, RPGN, MPGN, and LN with acute inflammatory lesions, such as endocapillary proliferation, tuft necrosis, and cellular crescents. In contrast, the urinary CD16+ M phi population was negligible in hematuria-positive patients with nonproliferative renal disease, including hereditary nephropathy, IRH, and renal stone and also in patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis lacking acute inflammatory lesions. Total urinary M phi of these patients were much less than those of patients having proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute inflammatory lesions. Transient expansion of the CD16+ M phi population in urine was observed during the acute exacerbation of urinary abnormalities, whereas the disappearance of CD16+ M phi closely preceded the amelioration of urinary abnormalities in patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis. In 38 of the 98 patients positive for CD16+ M phi population in urine, the CD16+ Mo population was negligible in peripheral blood. Immunohistochemically, CD16+ M phi were present in the glomeruli of active proliferative glomerulonephritis, whereas such cells were absent in inactive proliferative glomerulonephritis or nonproliferative glomerular diseases. CONCLUSION: CD16+ M phi may be effector cells involved in the acute inflammation common to all types of proliferative glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, the detection of CD16+ M phi in urine, as well as urinary M phi counts, may serve as a useful indicator of the active stage of proliferative glomerulonephritis. (+info)
Polyomavirus infection of renal allograft recipients: from latent infection to manifest disease.
Polyomavirus (PV) exceptionally causes a morphologically manifest renal allograft infection. Five such cases were encountered in this study, and were followed between 40 and 330 d during persistent PV renal allograft infection. Transplant (Tx) control groups without PV graft infection were analyzed for comparison. Tissue and urine samples were evaluated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and PCR. The initial diagnosis of PV infection with the BK strain was made in biopsies 9+/-2 mo (mean +/- SD) post-Tx after prior rejection episodes and rescue therapy with tacrolimus. All subsequent biopsies showed persistent PV infection. Intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in epithelial cells along the entire nephron and the transitional cell layer were histologic hallmarks of infection. Affected tubular cells were enlarged and often necrotic. In two patients, small glomerular crescents were found. In 54% of biopsies, infection was associated with pronounced inflammation, which had features of cellular rejection. All patients were excreting PV-infected cells in the urine. PV infection was associated with 40% graft loss (2 of 5) and a serum creatinine of 484+/-326 micromol/L (mean +/- SD; 11 mo post-Tx). Tx control groups showed PV-infected cells in the urine in 5%. Control subjects had fewer rejection episodes (P<0.05) and stable graft function (P = 0.01). It is concluded that a manifest renal allograft infection with PV (BK strain) can persist in heavily immunosuppressed patients with recurrent rejection episodes. PV mainly affects tubular cells and causes necrosis, a major reason for functional deterioration. A biopsy is required for diagnosis. Urine cytology can serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool. (+info)
Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and excretion of secretory IgA in the postischemic kidney.
The humoral mucosal immune response of the kidney involves the transport of secretory IgA (S-IgA) through renal epithelial cells by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). The pIgR is cleaved and released as free secretory component (FSC) or attached to IgA (S-IgA). We examined the effects of an ischemic model of acute renal failure (ARF) on the expression of pIgR and the secretion of FSC and S-IgA in the urine. Kidney pIgR mRNA levels decreased in ischemic animals by 55% at 4 h and by 85% at 72 h compared with controls. pIgR protein expression in the medullary thick ascending limb (TAL) decreased within 24 h and was nearly undetectable by 72 h. Urinary S-IgA and FSC concentrations decreased by 60% between days 3 and 6. pIgR mRNA and pIgR protein in the kidney returned to approximately 90% of control levels and urinary FSC and S-IgA concentrations returned to approximately 55% of control levels by day 7. We demonstrate that ischemic ARF decreases renal mucosal S-IgA transport in vivo and may contribute to the increased incidence of urinary tract infections. (+info)
A novel mouse with B cells but lacking serum antibody reveals an antibody-independent role for B cells in murine lupus.
The precise role of B cells in systemic autoimmunity is incompletely understood. Although B cells are necessary for expression of disease (Chan, O., and M.J. Shlomchik. 1998. J. Immunol. 160:51-59, and Shlomchik, M.J., M.P. Madaio, D. Ni, M. Trounstine, and D. Huszar. 1994. J. Exp. Med. 180:1295-1306), it is unclear whether autoantibody production, antigen presentation, and/or other B cell functions are required for the complete pathologic phenotype. To address this issue, two experimental approaches were used. In the first, the individual contributions of circulating antibodies and B cells were analyzed using MRL/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL/lpr) mice that expressed a mutant transgene encoding surface immunoglobulin (Ig), but which did not permit the secretion of circulating Ig. These mice developed nephritis, characterized by cellular infiltration within the kidney, indicating that B cells themselves, without soluble autoantibody production, exert a pathogenic role. The results indicate that, independent of serum autoantibody, functional B cells expressing surface Ig are essential for disease expression, either by serving as antigen-presenting cells for antigen-specific, autoreactive T cells, or by contributing directly to local inflammation. (+info)
The role of environmental antigens in the spontaneous development of autoimmunity in MRL-lpr mice.
It has been proposed that the "normal" stimulation of the immune system that occurs from interactions with environmental stimuli, whether infectious or dietary, is necessary for the initiation and/or continuation of autoimmunity. We tested this hypothesis by deriving a group of MRL-lpr mice into a germfree (GF) environment. At 5 mo of age, no differences between GF and conventional MRL-lpr mice were noted in lymphoproliferation, flow cytometric analysis of lymph node cells (LN), or histologic analysis of the kidneys. Autoantibody levels were comparably elevated in both groups. A second experiment tested the role of residual environmental stimuli by contrasting GF mice fed either a low m.w., ultrafiltered Ag-free (GF-AF) diet or an autoclaved natural ingredient diet (GF-NI). At 4 mo of age, both groups showed extensive lymphoproliferation and aberrant T cell formation, although the GF-AF mice had approximately 50% smaller LNs compared with sex-matched GF-NI controls. Autoantibody formation was present in both groups. Histologic analysis of the kidneys revealed that GF-AF mice had much lower levels of nephritis, while immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated no difference in Ig deposits but did reveal a paucity of C3 deposition in the kidneys of GF-AF mice. These data do not support a role for infectious agents in the induction of lymphoproliferation and B cell autoimmunity in MRL-lpr mice. Furthermore, they suggest that autoantibodies do not originate from B cells that were initially committed to exogenous Ags. They do suggest a possible contributory role for dietary exposure in the extent of lymphoproliferation and development of nephritis in this strain. (+info)