Characterization of natriuretic peptide production by adult heart atria.
The cardiac polypeptide hormones atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are synthesized and costored by atrial cardiocytes and share receptors and many biologic properties. Although some aspects of their synthesis and release are specific for each peptide, it is not clear whether they share intracellular sorting and secretory mechanisms. In the present work we take advantage of a stable isolated rat atrial preparation that allows, for the first time, long-term study of synthesis, trafficking, targeting, and secretion of ANF and BNP by adult atrial muscle. Three model stimuli of secretion were used: increased intra-atrial pressure, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and phenylephrine (PE), representing mechanical, hormonal, and alpha1-adrenergic stimuli, respectively. To gain further insight into the secretory process under basal and agonist-induced secretion, we employed agents known to inhibit protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or to interfere with the vectorial transport of protein targeted for secretion (brefeldin A and monensin). All these agents induced significant changes in ANF and BNP release. Cycloheximide decreased natriuretic peptide secretion under basal and stimulated conditions. Brefeldin A dramatically increased basal as well as stimulated secretion of ANF and BNP. Monensin partially decreased basal ANF and BNP secretion and completely blocked stimulated secretion. None of these agents modified proteolytic processing as assessed by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. Double-label pulse-chase experiments using [3H]- and [14C]leucine demonstrated that the secretory response to ET-1, in contrast to the response to muscle stretch, is based on peptide other than newly synthesized or relatively newly stored ANF. It is concluded that, in adult atrial cardiocytes, ANF and BNP are sorted to constitutive and regulated pathways in a manner that is substantially unique for atrial cardiocytes. In particular, it appears that basal and stimulated ANF and BNP secretion may have a large "constitutive-like" component, as previously defined in other endocrine systems. This type of secretion is based on the preferential release of hormone through vesicles arising from immature secretory granules. The capacity of the atria to release ANF and BNP in response to stimuli, therefore, may depend more on stimulation of the rate of formation of immature granules than on the amount of stored hormone. (+info)
The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor locally modulates the physiological effects of the natriuretic peptide system.
Natriuretic peptides (NPs), mainly produced in heart [atrial (ANP) and B-type (BNP)], brain (CNP), and kidney (urodilatin), decrease blood pressure and increase salt excretion. These functions are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptors A and B (NPRA and NPRB) having cytoplasmic guanylyl cyclase domains that are stimulated when the receptors bind ligand. A more abundantly expressed receptor (NPRC or C-type) has a short cytoplasmic domain without guanylyl cyclase activity. NPRC is thought to act as a clearance receptor, although it may have additional functions. To test how NPRC affects the cardiovascular and renal systems, we inactivated its gene (Npr3) in mice by homologous recombination. The half life of [125I]ANP in the circulation of homozygotes lacking NPRC is two-thirds longer than in the wild type, although plasma levels of ANP and BNP in heterozygotes and homozygotes are close to the wild type. Heterozygotes and homozygotes have a progressively reduced ability to concentrate urine, exhibit mild diuresis, and tend to be blood volume depleted. Blood pressure in the homozygotes is 8 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa) below normal. These results are consistent with the sole cardiovascular/renal function of NPRC being to clear natriuretic peptides, thereby modulating local effects of the natriuretic peptide system. Unexpectedly, Npr3 -/- homozygotes have skeletal deformities associated with a considerable increase in bone turnover. The phenotype is consistent with the bone function of NPRC being to clear locally synthesized CNP and modulate its effects. We conclude that NPRC modulates the availability of the natriuretic peptides at their target organs, thereby allowing the activity of the natriuretic peptide system to be tailored to specific local needs. (+info)
Basic FGF decreases clearance receptor of natriuretic peptides in fetoplacental artery endothelium.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is present in the fetoplacental circulation of humans and sheep. The ANP-A receptor is the specific membrane receptor for ANP, which produces cGMP. The clearance receptor of natriuretic peptide (CR) is postulated to modulate local concentrations of ANP, thereby modulating cGMP production through the ANP-A receptor. Recently we reported that fetoplacental basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and cGMP levels are increased dramatically during the third trimester of ovine gestation. Therefore we hypothesized that bFGF will downregulate CR expression in cultured ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial (OFPAE) cells via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal cascade mechanism, thereby causing augmentation of ANP-mediated cGMP production. Western analysis and/or RT-PCR of CR expression were performed after treatment of OFPAE cells with bFGF (10 pg/ml-1 microgram/ml) with or without 50 microM PD-98059, a selective inhibitor of MAPK kinase. To investigate the possible effects of CR downregulation on the functional modulation of ANP-A receptor activation, cGMP production (20 min) by OFPAE cells was measured in response to ANP (10 pM-1 microM) with or without pretreatment (24 h) of 10 ng/ml bFGF. CR expression in OFPAE cells was dose dependently downregulated by 1-10 ng/ml bFGF treatment (maximum -69%), which was completely reversed by pretreatment with PD-98059. Treatment of OFPAE cells with 10 ng/ml bFGF (24 h) did not alter maximum ANP-A activity (cGMP production/20 min), but decreased the apparent ED(50) of ANP to stimulate cGMP production from 2.5 to 0.83 nM, suggesting the possibility that bFGF-mediated downregulation of CR may elevate ANP-mediated cGMP production responses. Thus bFGF downregulates CR mRNA and protein expressions via the MAPK cascade in OFPAE cells. (+info)
G(i-1)/G(i-2)-dependent signaling by single-transmembrane natriuretic peptide clearance receptor.
Single-transmembrane natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C), which is devoid of a cytoplasmic guanylyl cyclase domain, interacts with pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive G proteins to activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. We examined the ability of NPR-C to activate other effector enzymes in eNOS-deficient tenia coli smooth muscle cells; these cells expressed NPR-C and NPR-B but not NPR-A. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the selective NPR-C ligand cANP-(4-23), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibited (125)I-ANP and (125)I-VIP binding to muscle membranes in a pattern indicating high-affinity binding to NPR-C. Interaction of VIP with NPR-C was confirmed by its ability to inhibit (125)I-ANP binding to membranes of NPR-C-transfected COS-1 cells. In tenia muscle cells, all ligands selectively activated G(i-1) and G(i-2); VIP also activated G(s) via VIP(2) receptors. All ligands stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis, which was inhibited by ANP-(1-11), PTx, and antibodies to phospholipase C-beta3 (PLC-beta3) and Gbeta. cANP-(4-23) contracted tenia muscle cells; contraction was blocked by U-73122 and PTx and by antibodies to PLC-beta3 and Gbeta in intact and permeabilized muscle cells, respectively. VIP and ANP contracted muscle cells only after inhibition of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases. ANP and cANP-(4-23) inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP in a PTx-sensitive fashion. We conclude that NPR-C is coupled to activation of PLC-beta3 via betagamma-subunits of G(i-1) and G(i-2) and to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via alpha-subunits. (+info)
The structure of the digitalislike and natriuretic factors identified as macrocyclic derivatives of the inorganic carbon suboxide.
The Natriuretic and Endogenous DigitalisLike Factors (EDLFs) are disclosed to be cyclomeric and macroring closed derivatives of the inorganic carbon suboxide. The macrocyclic cyclohexamer with six carbon suboxide units has a molar mass of 408.2 Da, as previously been found for the EDLF of animal origin. The anhydrous cyclohexameric factor is lipophilic but is transformed into more hydrophilic derivatives by the stepwise addition of water. Based on the present findings, it appears that EDLFs exist in solution as an equilibrium mixture of lipophilic and hydrophilic forms and not as a single chemical substance. This structural assumption better accounts for the earlier observed highly anomalous properties of EDLFs. The simultaneously found higher molar mass (4,100 and 4,900 Da) macrocyclic carbon suboxide derivatives are tentatively identified as the Natriuretic factors. (+info)
Oxidized LDL increases the sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in isolated resistance arteries for Ca(2+) via a rho- and rho kinase-dependent mechanism.
BACKGROUND: Oxidized LDL reduces NO-mediated and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated dilations. We studied, in hamster skeletal muscle resistance arteries (213+/-8 micrometer n=51), whether an altered vascular smooth muscle (VSM) response, particularly sensitization of the VSM contractile apparatus to Ca(2+), is involved in this oxLDL effect. Methods and Results-VSM or endothelial [Ca(2+)](i) and vascular diameter were measured in response to norepinephrine (0.3 micromol/L), sodium nitroprusside (10 micromol/L), C-type natriuretic peptide (1 to 100 nmol/L), papaverine (0.1 to 10 micromol/L), or the endothelial agonist acetylcholine (ACh, 0.01 to 1 micromol/L). OxLDL significantly increased resting VSM [Ca(2+)](i) (11+/-3%), decreased diameter (8+/-2%), and enhanced norepinephrine-induced constrictions. Dilations to sodium nitroprusside and C-type natriuretic peptide were significantly reduced (by 10+/-2% and 35+/-6%), whereas dose-response curves for papaverine and ACh were shifted to the right, despite unchanged increases in endothelial Ca(2+) after ACh. OxLDL significantly shifted the Ca(2+)-diameter relation to the left, as assessed by stepwise increasing extracellular Ca(2+) (0 to 3 mmol/L) in depolarized skeletal muscle resistance arteries. This sensitization to Ca(2+) by oxLDL was abolished after inhibition of Rho (C3 transferase) or Rho kinase (Y27632). CONCLUSIONS: OxLDL reduces VSM responsiveness to vasodilators by increasing VSM Ca(2+) but preferentially by sensitizing VSM to Ca(2+) via a Rho- and Rho kinase-dependent pathway. (+info)
Effect of water deprivation and hypertonic saline infusion on urinary AQP2 excretion in healthy humans.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) mediates water transport in the renal collecting ducts by forming water channels of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the apical plasma membrane. AQP2 is excreted in human urine. We wanted to test the hypothesis that urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2) reflects the effect of AVP on the renal collecting ducts during water deprivation and hypertonic saline infusion in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent a 24-h period of fluid restriction. Urine and blood samples were collected at timed intervals. Fifteen healthy subjects were given 7 ml/kg 3% hypertonic saline infusion for 30 min. Urine and blood samples were collected at timed intervals. During fluid restriction, the u-AQP2 rate increased from 3.9 (25th percentile: 3.1; 75th percentile: 5.2) to 7.6 (5.9-9.1; P < 0.001) ng/min, and the plasma AVP (p-AVP) level increased from 0.5 (0.4-0.6) to 3 (1.7-3.3) pmol/l. There was a positive correlation between the maximum change in u-AQP2 rate and the maximum change in p-AVP (r = 0.57, P < 0.03). During the infusion study, u-AQP2 rate was at maximum 90 min after the infusion [baseline: 4.5 ng/min (3.5-4.8); 90 min: 5 ng/min (4.5-6.0) P < 0.02]. p-AVP increased from 1.0 (0.9-1.1) to 1.5 (1.2-1.8; P < 0.002) pmol/l. There was a positive correlation between the maximum change in u-AQP2 rate and the maximum change in p-AVP (r = 0.83; P < 0.0001). It can be concluded that p-AVP and u-AQP2 are increased during thirst and hypertonic saline infusion and that u-AQP2 reflects the action of AVP on the collecting ducts. (+info)
Cardiac natriuretic peptides are related to left ventricular mass and function and predict mortality in dialysis patients.
This study was designed to investigate the relationship among brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and left ventricular mass (LVM), ejection fraction, and LV geometry in a large cohort of dialysis patients without heart failure (n = 246) and to test the prediction power of these peptides for total and cardiovascular mortality. In separate multivariate models of LVM, BNP and ANP were the strongest independent correlates of the LVM index. In these models, the predictive power of BNP was slightly stronger than that of ANP. Both natriuretic peptides also were the strongest independent predictors of ejection fraction, and again BNP was a slightly better predictor of ejection fraction than ANP. In separate multivariate Cox models, the relative risk of death was significantly higher in patients of the third tertile of the distribution of BNP and ANP than in those of the first tertile (BNP, 7.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.83 to 18.01, P = 0.00001]; ANP, 4.22 [95% CI, 1.79 to 9.92, P = 0.001]), and a similar difference was found for cardiovascular death (BNP, 6.72 [95% CI, 2.44 to 18.54, P = 0.0002]; ANP, 3.80 [95% CI, 1.44 to 10.03, P = 0.007]). BNP but not ANP remained as an independent predictor of death in a Cox's model including LVM and ejection fraction. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are linked independently to LVM and function in dialysis patients and predict overall and cardiovascular mortality. The measurement of the plasma concentration of BNP and ANP may be useful for risk stratification in these patients. (+info)