Immediate and early renal function after living donor transplantation.
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the immediate renal function after living donor transplantation, renal function was compared in eight renal allograft recipients and their living related kidney donors during the first 24 h after transplantation. METHODS: Substantial and comparable intraoperative volume loading with Ringer's acetate and mannitol was performed together with the administration of frusemide. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were estimated by the clearances of inulin and p-aminohippurane, respectively. Tubular reabsorptive function and injury were estimated from the clearance of lithium, the fractional excretion of sodium and the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. RESULTS: One hour after completion of surgery, GFR (54 +/- 7 ml/min) and ERPF (294 +/- 35 ml/min) were only 30% lower in the grafts than in the remaining donor kidneys, increasing to similar levels within 3 h. Only minor tubular dysfunction and injury were revealed in the grafted kidneys, and these tended to normalize within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: By the present transplantation procedure comprising short ischaemia time and substantial volume expansion combined with mannitol and frusemide administration, kidneys from living donors regain nearly normal function within a few hours after transplantation. (+info)
Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion.
This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor-mediated antinatriuretic effects. (+info)
Hemodynamic and renal effects of U-46619, a TXA2/PGH2 analog, in late-pregnant rats.
The vasoconstrictor effects of pressor agents are attenuated during pregnancy. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in great quantities during hypertension in pregnancy, and therefore it is important to know whether pregnancy modifies the pressor effects of TXA2. The TXA2 analog U-46619 was infused in anesthetized, acutely prepared and conscious, chronically prepared late-pregnant and nonpregnant female rats to examine its systemic hemodynamic and renal effects. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were lower in anesthetized pregnant than nonpregnant rats (P < 0.01). The infusion of U-46619 into the aortic arch resulted in elevation of MAP only in pregnant rats, due to a greater elevation of TPR (60 +/- 17%) compared with nonpregnant rats (36 +/- 6%, P < 0.05). The pressor effect of intravenously infused U-46619 was also enhanced in conscious pregnant versus nonpregnant rats, and the increase in renal vascular resistance was undiminished. U-46619 increased hematocrit and plasma protein concentration more during pregnancy, which suggested greater reduction of plasma volume. The urinary excretion of sodium (-1.49 +/- 0.25 vs. -0.54 +/- 0.24 micromol/min) and water was reduced more in pregnant than nonpregnant rats during U-46619 (P < 0.01). Thus the MAP and renal effects of the TXA2 analog are exaggerated during pregnancy in the rat. (+info)
The subtype 2 of angiotensin II receptors and pressure-natriuresis in adult rat kidneys.
The present work examined the effects of the subtype 2 of angiotensin II (AT2) receptors on the pressure-natriuresis using a new peptide agonist, and the possible involvement of cyclic guanosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in these effects. In adult anaesthetized rats (Inactin, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) deprived of endogenous angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (quinapril, 10 mg kg(-1), i.v.), T2-(Ang II 4-8)2 (TA), a highly specific AT2 receptor agonist (5, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.) or its solvent was infused in four groups. Renal functions were studied at renal perfusion pressures (RPP) of 90, 110 and 130 mmHg and urinary cyclic GMP excretion when RPP was at 130 mmHg. The effects of TA (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) were reassessed in animals pretreated with PD 123319 (PD, 50 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.), an AT2 receptor antagonist and the action of the same dose of PD alone was also determined. Increases in RPP from 90 to 130 mmHg did not change renal blood flow (RBF) but induced 8 and 15 fold increases in urinary flow and sodium excretion respectively. The 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) dose of TA was devoid of action. The 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1) doses did not alter total RBF and glomerular filtration rate, but blunted pressure-diuresis and natriuresis relationships. These effects were abolished by PD. TA decreased urinary cyclic GMP excretion. After pretreatment with PD, this decrease was reversed to an increase which was also observed in animals receiving PD alone. In conclusion, renal AT2 receptors oppose the sodium and water excretion induced by acute increases in blood pressure and this action cannot be directly explained by changes in cyclic GMP. (+info)
Endothelin mediates renal vascular memory of a transient rise in perfusion pressure due to NOS inhibition.
We investigated the renal responses to NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA; 30 mg/kg) in anesthetized rats in which renal perfusion pressure (RPP) to the left kidney was mechanically adjusted. Acute L-NMA increased blood pressure (BP, approximately 20%) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) rose ( approximately 50%) in the right kidneys that were always exposed to high RPP. In group 1, the left kidney was exposed to a transient increase (5 min) in RPP which was then normalized, and the rise in RVR was similar to the right kidney. In group 2 the left kidney was never exposed to high RPP, and the rise in RVR was attenuated relative to the right kidney. In group 3, rats were pretreated with the endothelin (ET) receptor antagonist Bosentan, immediately before exposure of the left kidney to a transient increase in RPP, and the rise in RVR was also attenuated relative to the right kidney. NOS inhibition resulted in a natriuresis and diuresis in the right kidneys, and approximately 50% of the natriuresis persisted in the left kidney of group 2, in the absence of any rise in RPP. ET antagonism completely prevented the natriuresis and diuresis in response to acute L-NMA in both left and right kidneys. These data suggest that transient exposure to high RPP by NOS inhibition prevents an appropriate vasodilatory response when RPP is lowered, due to the intrarenal action of ET. (+info)
Enhanced natriuretic response to neutral endopeptidase inhibition in heart-transplant recipients.
Heart-transplant recipients (Htx) generally present with body fluid and sodium handling abnormalities and hypertension. To investigate whether neutral endopeptidase inhibition (NEP-I) increases endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and enhances natriuresis and diuresis after heart transplantation, ecadotril was given orally to 8 control subjects and 8 matched Htx, and levels of volume-regulating hormones and renal water, electrolyte, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) excretions were monitored for 210 minutes. Baseline plasma ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and cGMP were elevated in Htx, but renin and aldosterone, like urinary parameters, did not differ between groups. NEP-I increased plasma ANP (Htx, 20.6+/-2.3 to 33.2+/-5.9 pmol/L, P<0.01; controls, 7.7+/-1. 2 to 10.6+/-2.6 pmol/L) and cGMP, but not BNP. Renin decreased similarly in both groups, whereas aldosterone decreased significantly only in Htx. Enhanced urinary sodium (1650+/-370% versus 450+/-150%, P=0.01), cGMP, and water excretions were observed in Htx and urinary cGMP positively correlated with natriuresis in 6 of the Htx subjects. Consistent with a normal circadian rhythm of blood pressure, without excluding a possible effect of NEP-I, mean systemic blood pressure increased similarly in both groups at the end of the study (6.9+/-2.0% versus 7.4+/-2.8% in controls and Htx). Thus, systemic hypertension, mild renal impairment, and raised plasma ANP levels are possible contributory factors in the enhanced natriuresis and diuresis with NEP-I in Htx. These results support a physiological role for the cardiac hormone after heart transplantation and suggest that long-term studies may be useful to determine the potential of NEP-I in the treatment of sodium retention and water retention after heart transplantation. (+info)
Impact of the endothelin system on water and sodium excretion in patients with liver cirrhosis.
BACKGROUND: Impaired renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis is a serious complication and is characterized by sodium and water retention in the absence of identifiable specific causes of renal dysfunction. The endothelin system has been shown to be activated in liver cirrhosis and might contribute to impaired renal function. However, the mechanisms leading to an activation of the endothelin system in these patients and the effects of an activated endothelin system on renal function in these patients are as yet unknown. METHODS: To determine the correlation between the activity of the endothelin system and the ability to excrete water and sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis, we measured plasma endothelin-1 concentrations by reversed phase-HPLC followed by an endothelin RIA and performed an oral water load tests in 10 healthy control subjects and 43 patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, we analysed possible mechanisms/factors like plasma endotoxin that might contribute to the activation of the endothelin system in liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: This study showed that the endothelin system is activated in patients with liver cirrhosis in a disease-stage-dependent manner. Patients with Child C liver cirrhosis have a 5.45-fold increased plasma ET-1 concentration compared to healthy controls, whereas plasma ET-1 is only increased 2.74-fold in Child A patients. An oral water load test revealed a highly significant (P < 0.0001) inverse correlation between the plasma endothelin-1 concentrations and the ability to excrete a given water load. Plasma endotoxin, a well-known stimulus of ET-1, is significantly (P < 0.03) correlated with plasma ET-1 in cirrhotic patients. The ET-1 concentrations in the ascites of patients with liver cirrhosis were lower and not related to plasma ET-1. CONCLUSION: The activity of the endothelin system in patients with liver cirrhosis depends on the severity of liver impairment. Plasma endotoxin might be an important stimulus of the endothelin system in liver cirrhosis. We observed a highly significant inverse correlation between the plasma endothelin-1 concentrations and the ability to excrete a given water and sodium load, suggesting that the endothelin system plays a role in the regulation of water excretion in patients with liver cirrhosis. (+info)
Altered pressure-natriuresis in obese Zucker rats.
It has not been examined whether the pressure-natriuresis response is altered in the insulin-resistant condition. Furthermore, despite an important role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating pressure-natriuresis, no investigations have been conducted assessing the renal interstitial NO production in insulin resistance. The present study examined whether pressure-natriuresis was altered in insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats (OZ) and assessed the cortical and medullary nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels with the use of the renal microdialysis technique. In OZ, serum insulin/glucose ratio (23.0+/-4.0x10(-8), n=9) and blood pressure (119+/-3 mm Hg) were greater than those in lean Zucker rats (LZ; 7.0+/-1.9x10(-8) and 103+/-4 mm Hg, n=9). The pressure-natriuresis curve in OZ was shifted to higher renal perfusion pressure (RPP), and the slope was blunted compared with that in LZ (0.073+/-0.015 vs 0.217+/-0.047 microEq/min kidney weight/mm Hg, P<0.05). The basal renal NOx level was reduced in OZ (cortex, 4.032+/-0.331 micromol/L; medulla, 4. 329+/-0.515 micromol/L) compared with that in LZ (cortex, 7.315+/-1. 102 micromol/L; medulla: 7.698+/-0.964 micromol/L). Furthermore, elevating RPP increased the medullary NOx in LZ, but this pressure-induced response was lost in OZ. Four-week treatment with troglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent, improved hyperinsulinemia, systemic hypertension, and basal renal NOx levels (cortex, 5.639+/-0.286 micromol/L; medulla, 5.978+/-0.284 micromol/L), and partially ameliorated the pressure-natriuresis curves; the slope of pressure-natriuresis curves and elevated RPP-induced NOx, however, were not corrected. In conclusion, our study suggests that insulin resistance is closely associated with abnormal pressure-natriuresis and hypertension. These deranged renal responses to insulin resistance are most likely attributed to impaired medullary NO production within the medulla. (+info)