Specificity of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy: a prospective study and effects of false-positive localizations on management in patients with gastrinomas.
Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is being increasingly used both for localization and, in some cases, diagnosis of various diseases. There are no prospective studies of its specificity or occurrence of false-positive results and their effects on management. This study was designed to address both of these issues. METHODS: Over a 40-mo period, 146 consecutive patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) undergoing 480 SRS examinations were studied prospectively. Patients were admitted at least yearly and underwent SRS as well as conventional imaging studies (ultrasonography, CT, MRI) and angiography, if necessary. All admissions were assigned to one of five different clinical categories in which imaging studies had different purposes. SRS localizations were classified as true-positive or false-positive based on preset criteria. A false-positive result was determined to change clinical management based on five preset criteria. RESULTS: Of all SRS examinations, 12% resulted in a false-positive localization for a neuroendocrine tumor or its metastases, resulting in a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 86% and positive and negative predictive values of 85% and 52%, respectively. Extra-abdominal false-positive localizations (2/3) were more common than intra-abdominal (1/3). Thyroid disease, breast disease and granulomatosis lung disease were the most frequent causes of extra-abdominal false-positive localizations. Accessory spleens, localization to previous operative sites, renal parapelvic cysts and various procedural aspects were the most frequent causes of intra-abdominal false-positive localizations. Of all SRS studies, 2.7% resulted in a false-positive result that altered management. CONCLUSION: False-positive SRS localization occurs in 1 of 10 patients with ZES. By having a thorough understanding of diseases or circumstances that result in false-positive localization and comparing the SRS result with the clinical context, the percentage of patients in whom false-positive localization results in altered management can be reduced to below 3% and the correct diagnosis made in almost every case. (+info)
99mTc technegas ventilation and perfusion lung scintigraphy for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus.
Lung scintigraphy is used widely for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus (PE). Technegas ventilation imaging has many advantages over other methods, but little outcome data exists on this technique. The aims of this study were to better define the role of lung scintigraphy in the management of patients with suspected PE and to evaluate technegas ventilation imaging by following patient outcomes. METHODS: A group of 717 out of 834 consecutive patients, referred to a university teaching hospital for lung scintigraphy to confirm or refute the diagnosis of PE, was followed for 18-30 mo to determine clinical outcome. The follow-up endpoints were death as a result of PE, death as a result of hemorrhage after treatment for PE, uncomplicated survival, survival with subsequent PE, nonfatal hemorrhage after treatment for PE and recurrence of PE in treated patients. Ventilation imaging was performed using technegas, and perfusion imaging was performed using intravenous 99mTc macroaggregated albumin. The modified PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) diagnostic criterion was used for interpretation of lung scintigraphy. RESULTS: Diagnostic results included 3.5% normal studies, 67.4% assessed as low probability for PE, 10% as moderate probability for PE and 19.1% as high probability for PE. A total of 231 patents received therapy with heparin, followed by warfarin, including those receiving anticoagulation therapy for other conditions. Ninety-six percent of patients with normal and low probability studies (n = 508) had good outcomes, 6 patients died as a result of PE and 12 subsequently developed PE. The odds ratio for death by PE in this group was 0.2. Of the 72 moderate probability studies, 39 patients were untreated. In this group there was 1 death due to PE, and PE subsequently developed in 2 patients. None of the remaining 33 treated patients died, but 4 patients experienced bleeding complications. The odds ratio for death by PE in the moderate probability group was 0.7. In those patients with high-probability studies, there were 8 deaths by PE, 6 deaths by hemorrhage, 11 nonfatal hemorrhages and 7 patients who experienced recurrences of PE. The odds ratios in this group were 6 and 10 for death by PE, or death by PE and the treatment of PE, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of the modified PIOPED diagnostic classification is valid for technegas lung scintigraphy. Using technegas, normal/low-probability and high-probability results are highly predictive of respective outcomes. Technegas lung scintigraphy reduces the number of indeterminate studies. (+info)
Radiation dosimetry of a 99mTc-labeled IgM murine antibody to CD15 antigens on human granulocytes.
99mTc-labeled anti-stage specific embryonic antigen-1 (anti-SSEA-1) is an injectable IgM antibody derived from mice. It binds to CD15 antigens on some granulocytic subpopulations of human white blood cells in vivo after systemic administration. The purpose of this study was to measure biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled anti-SSEA-1 and perform radiation dosimetry in 10 healthy human volunteers. METHODS: Transmission scans and whole-body images were acquired sequentially on a dual-head camera for 32 h after the intravenous administration of about 370 MBq (10.0 mCi) of the radiopharmaceutical. Renal excretion fractions were measured from 10 to 14 discrete urine specimens voided over 27.9 +/- 2.0 h. Multiexponential functions were fit iteratively to the time-activity curves for 17 regions of interest using a nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The curves were integrated numerically to yield source organ residence times. Gender-specific radiation doses were then estimated individually for each subject, using the MIRD technique, before any results were averaged. RESULTS: Quantification showed that the kidneys excreted 39.5% +/- 6.5% of the administered dose during the first 24 h after administration. Image analysis showed that 10%-14% of the radioactivity went to the spleen, while more than 40% went to the liver. Residence times were longest in the liver (3.37 h), followed by the bone marrow (1.09 h), kidneys (0.84 h) and the spleen (0.65 h). The dose-limiting organ in both men and women was the spleen, which received an average of 0.062 mGy/MBq (0.23 rad/mCi, range 0.08-0.30 rad/mCi), followed by the kidneys (0.051 mGy/MBq), liver (0.048 mGy/MBq) and urinary bladder (0.032 mGy/MBq). The effective dose equivalent was 0.018 mSv/MBq (0.068 rem/mCi). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the radiation dosimetry profile for this new infection imaging agent is highly favorable. (+info)
Dual-isotope SPECT using simultaneous acquisition of 99mTc and 123I radioisotopes: a double-injection technique for peri-ictal functional neuroimaging.
The acquisition of multiple radiotracer studies at different time points during a neurological event permits the study of different functional activation states in humans. Peri-ictal SPECT is a promising technique for localizing the epileptogenic zone and would be enhanced by the ability to acquire sequentially coregistered ictal and postictal SPECT images of a single seizure. This study was designed to develop and validate an accurate method for the simultaneous acquisition of 99mTc and 123I SPECT images of the brain. METHODS: A multicompartment, transaxial Hoffman brain-slice phantom was filled with 99mTc, 123I or a 3:1 mixture of the two isotopes. Planar and SPECT images were acquired by a dual-head gamma camera system equipped with parallel and fanbeam collimators, respectively. Thirty-two energy windows (2 keV width) were acquired over the energy range 120-184 keV. From the planar data, the signal-to-noise characteristics and crosstalk were measured for each energy window and used to devise an energy window acquisition strategy that was then applied to the SPECT data. Three summed energy windows were created: a primary 99mTc image (130-146 keV), a primary 123I image (152-168 keV) and a secondary 99mTc crosstalk image (134-140 keV). A fraction (0.041) of the 99mTc crosstalk image was subtracted from the 123I image. No crosstalk correction was performed on the primary 99mTc image. RESULTS: (a) Planar images: results showed 1.3% crosstalk in the 123I image compared with 19.7% for a 10% asymmetric energy window alone. 123I crosstalk into the 99mTc window was 2.79% and was relatively constant with changes in the location of the 99mTc energy window. (b) Tomographic images: results showed 1.51% 99mTc crosstalk in the 123I image compared with 12.44% for the uncorrected image and 3.70% 123I crosstalk in the 99mTc image. CONCLUSION: An effective technique for the simultaneous acquisition of 99mTc and 123I radiotracer distributions in the brain has been developed and validated in a phantom model and should have clinical application in peri-ictal functional activation studies of the brain. (+info)
99mTc-labeled antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor antibody in patients with tumors of epithelial origin: Part III. Clinical trials safety and diagnostic efficacy.
Monoclonal antibody (moAb) ior egf/r3 is an IgG2a that recognizes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the 99mTc-labeled moAb ior egf/r3 for the detection of epithelial-derived tumors, their metastases and recurrences. METHODS: One hundred forty-eight adult patients (51 women, 97 men; mean age 53 +/- 13 y) who were suspected of having cancer of epithelial origin were administered 3 mg/50 mCi (1.85 GBq) 99mTc-labeled moAb ior egf/r3 by intravenous bolus injection. Planar anterior and posterior images of the lesion sites and suspected metastases were acquired at 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after injection, and SPECT images were scanned at 5 h postinjection, using a 360 degrees circular orbit with 64 images. The backprojection method was used for image reconstruction with a Hamming-Hann filter. RESULTS: Labeling efficiency was always greater than 98.5% +/- 2.1 %. No adverse reactions or side effects were observed. Results of the biopsy specimens showed that 85.1% (126/148) of the patients had tumors of epithelial origin, 14.2% (21/148) were negative and 0.7% (1/148) had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The sensitivity rate by organ was as follows: brain (8/8, 100%), digestive tract (10/11, 90.9%), head and neck (17/23, 73.9%), lung (52/62, 83.9%) and breast (16/18, 88.9%). Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of the immunoscintigraphic imaging were 84.2% (106/126), 100.0% (22/22), 86.5% (128/148), 100% (106/106) and 52.4% (22/42), respectively. New metastases not identified previously by other diagnostic methods were detected in the 50% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled moAb ior egf/r3 could be a useful procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of the patients with tumors of epithelial origin. (+info)
Lymphoscintigraphy in tumors of the head and neck using double tracer technique.
Knowledge of possible lymphatic drainage may facilitate planning of surgery for patients with head and neck tumors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present a method of lymphoscintigraphy with special attention to an accurate correlation of lymphatic drainage to anatomic regions. METHODS: Lymphoscintigraphy was performed using a double tracer technique before surgery in a total of 75 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. All patients received 100 MBq 99mTc-colloid at three to four peritumoral sites. A perchlorate solution (2 mL) was given orally to block salivary glands and the thyroid gland. Patients received 50 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate intravenously for body contouring 20 min postinjection. Planar images were obtained over 5 min each, at 30 min and 4 h postinjection from anterior, right lateral and left lateral views with a large-field-of-view gamma camera. Lymphatic drainage was assessed by visual inspection and assigned to six cervical compartments. RESULTS: Neither the salivary glands nor the thyroid gland were seen in any of the patients. In 22 of 75 patients (29.3%), the injection site was the only focal tracer uptake seen. In contrast, lymphatic drainage was identified in the remaining 53 patients (70.7%), and lymph nodes could be assigned easily to the six cervical compartments. Of 75 patients, 36 (48%) exhibited ipsilateral lymphatic drainage. In addition, 17 patients (22.7%) with unilateral tumor showed bilateral (n = 12), contralateral (n = 2) or retropharyngeal (n = 3) lymphatic drainage. In 3 of these 17 patients, bilateral lymph node metastases were proven. A subgroup of 12 patients (16%) exhibited N2c nodal status, despite a unilateral localized primary tumor. In 3 of these 12 patients, surgery was extended as a result of scintigraphic findings from unilateral toward bilateral neck dissection, and histology confirmed nodal involvement in these patients. CONCLUSION: Lymphoscintigraphy using the double tracer technique allows an accurate correlation of lymphatic drainage to the six cervical compartments. This may provide the basis for a re-evaluation of its impact in treatment planning of patients with head and neck tumors. (+info)
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of 99mTc-pertechnetate scanning in the diagnosis of gastric banding leaks. METHODS: Three patients with morbid obesity received laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB), but no significant weight reduction was obtained. To exclude band leakage as the cause, four scintigraphic procedures were performed, consisting of imaging the upper abdomen 30 min and 3 h after injection of 3 mL (111 MBq) pertechnetate solution into the ASGB reservoir. In one patient, the integrity of the ASGB device was first assessed radiologically after injection of a water-soluble contrast agent into the ASGB reservoir. RESULTS: In two normally functioning ASGB devices, radiotracer was observed within the device on both early and late images. In two patients with a surgically proven small leak in the reservoir or the connecting tube, late images showed little tracer in the reservoir and the connecting tube. However, intense tracer accumulation was observed in the stomach as a result of resorption of pertechnetate in the subcutaneous or peritoneal blood vessels and subsequent gastric uptake. In one of the latter patients, radiographic assessment of the ASGB device revealed no abnormalities. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-pertechnetate scanning is a valuable technique to diagnose small leaks in an ASGB device. (+info)
Pertechnetate scintigraphy in primary congenital hypothyroidism.
Primary congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) is currently detected effectively by heel-stick screening. When elevated thyrotropin (TSH) and/or decreased T4 are found in the blood of neonates, they are recalled, values are confirmed in venous blood and thyroxine replacement therapy (TRT) is immediately instituted, thus cretinism or severe retardation is prevented. However, in a significant percentage of neonates with abnormal blood levels of T4 or TSH, the disorder is transient. To help determine the exact cause of PCH and the possibility of transient PCH, pinhole thyroid imaging is performed 30 min after an intravenous injection of 18.5 MBq (500 microCi) 99mTc-pertechnetate (TcPT). Patients with a nonvisualized gland or patients with images suggesting dyshormonogenesis are reevaluated at age 3-4 y to exclude transient PCH. METHODS: To define the role of TcPT imaging in determining the exact etiology of PCH and the possibility of its being transient, we reviewed data from 103 neonates with PCH who had scintigraphy in our laboratory between 1970 and 1996 and we correlated the results with clinical outcome. RESULTS: Four patterns of thyroid scintigrams were recognized and these determined patient classification: (a) normal in 7 patients with false-positive heel-stick screening but normal venous blood hormone levels; (b) hypoplasia-ectopia in 32 patients requiring lifelong TRT; (c) nonvisualization in 35 patients-32 with agenesis requiring lifelong TRT and 3 with fetal thyroid suppression by maternal antibodies whose TRT was discontinued at a later age; and (d) dyshormonogenesis (markedly increased TcPT concentration) in 29 patients-25 with permanent PCH requiring lifelong TRT and 4 with transient PCH in whom TRT was discontinued. Of the 25 patients with dyshormonogenesis, 12 belonged to five families with two or three siblings having the same disorder. CONCLUSION: TcPT thyroid scintigraphy in the neonate with PCH provides a more specific diagnosis, is useful for selecting patients for re-evaluation to uncover transient PCH and discontinue TRT and defines dyshormonogenesis, which is familial and requires genetic counseling. It is also cost-effective. (+info)