NO decreases thick ascending limb chloride absorption by reducing Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter activity.
We have reported that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits thick ascending limb (THAL) chloride absorption (J(Cl(-))). NaCl transport in the THAL depends on apical Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters, apical K(+) channels, and basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. However, the transporter inhibited by NO is unknown. We hypothesized that NO decreases THAL J(Cl(-)) by inhibiting the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter. THALs from Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and perfused. Intracellular sodium ([Na(+)](i)) and chloride concentrations ([Cl(-)](i)) were measured with sodium green and SPQ, respectively. The NO donor spermine NONOate (SPM) decreased [Na(+)](i) from 13.5 +/- 1.2 to 9.6 +/- 1.6 mM (P < 0.05) and also decreased [Cl(-)](i) (P < 0.01). We next tested whether NO decreases Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter activity by measuring the initial rate of Na(+) transport. In the presence of SPM in the bath, initial rates of Na(+) entry were 49.6 +/- 6.0% slower compared with control rates (P < 0.05). To determine whether NO inhibits apical K(+) channel activity, we measured the change in membrane potential caused by an increase in luminal K(+) from 1 to 25 mM using a potential-sensitive fluorescent dye. In the presence of SPM, increasing luminal K(+) concentration depolarized THALs to the same extent as it did in control tubules. We then tested whether a change in apical K(+) permeability could affect NO-induced inhibition of THAL J(Cl(-)). In the presence of luminal valinomycin, which increases K(+) permeability, addition of SPM decreased THAL J(Cl(-)) by 41.2 +/- 10.4%, not significantly different from the inhibition observed in control tubules. We finally tested whether NO alters the affinity or maximal rate of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by measuring oxygen consumption rate (QO(2)) in THAL suspensions in the presence of nystatin in varying concentrations of Na(+). In the presence of 10.5 mM Na(+), nystatin increased QO(2) to 119.1 +/- 19.2 and 125.6 +/- 23.4 nmol O(2). mg protein(-1). min(-1) in SPM- and furosemide-treated tubules, respectively. In the presence of 145 mM extracellular Na(+), nystatin increased QO(2) by 104 +/- 7 and 94 +/- 20% in NO- and furosemide-treated tubules, respectively. We concluded that NO decreases THAL J(Cl(-)) by inhibiting Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport rather than inhibiting apical K(+) channels or the sodium pump. (+info)
Role of Cl- current in endothelin-1-induced contraction in rabbit basilar artery.
Cl- efflux induces depolarization and contraction of smooth muscle cells. This study was undertaken to explore the role of Cl- channels in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced contraction in rabbit basilar artery. Male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 26), weighing 1.8-2.5 kg, were euthanized by an overdose of pentobarbital. The basilar arteries were removed for isometric tension recording. ET-1 produced a concentration-dependent contraction of the rabbit basilar artery in the normal Cl- Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (123 mM Cl-). The ET-1-induced contraction was reduced by the following manipulations: 1) inhibition of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter with bumetanide (3 x 10(-5) and 10(-4) M), 2) bicarbonate-free solution to disable Cl-/HCO exchanger, and 3) preincubation of rings with the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, and indanyloxyacetic acid 94. The ET-1-induced contraction was enhanced by substitution of extracellular Cl- (10 mM) with methanesulfonic acid (113 mM). Cl- channels are involved in ET-1-induced contraction in the rabbit basilar artery. (+info)
Nystatin and valinomycin induce tubuloglomerular feedback.
The macula densa expresses a luminal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter and a basolateral Cl(-) conductance. Although it is known that cotransport of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) is the first step in tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), subsequent steps are unclear. We hypothesized that Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) entry via the luminal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter elevates intracellular Cl(-), increases electrogenic Cl(-) efflux across the basolateral membrane, and depolarizes the macula densa, initiating TGF. We perfused afferent arterioles with macula densa attached. The macula densa was perfused with solutions containing either 5 mM Na(+) and 3 mM Cl(-) (low NaCl) or 80 mM Na(+) and 77 mM Cl(-) (high NaCl). When the macula densa perfusate was changed from low to high NaCl, afferent arteriole diameter decreased from 15.8 +/- 0.8 to 13.1 +/- 0.7 mm (P < 0.05). Adding 10 microM furosemide to the macula densa lumen blocked TGF. When nystatin, a group I cation ionophore, was added to the macula densa lumen together with furosemide in the presence of low NaCl, it induced TGF (from 18.0 +/- 1.5 to 15.6 +/- 1.6 mm; P = 0.003). When valinomycin, a K(+)-selective ionophore, was added to the macula densa lumen together with furosemide in the presence of low NaCl containing 5 mM K(+), it did not induce TGF. Subsequent addition of 50 mM KCl to the macula densa perfusate induced TGF (from 21.7 +/- 0.8 to 17.5 +/- 1.3 mm; P = 0.0047; n = 6). Adding 50 mM KCl without valinomycin did not induce TGF. When 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB; 1 microM), a Cl(-) channel blocker, was added to the bath, it blocked TGF induced by high NaCl, but did not block TGF induced by valinomycin plus 50 mM KCl. NPPB did not alter afferent arteriole constriction induced by norepinephrine. We concluded that increased NaCl in the lumen of the macula densa leads to influx of Cl(-) via the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter. The accelerated transport increases intracellular Cl(-). The subsequent exit of Cl(-) across the basolateral membrane via Cl( -) channels in turn leads to depolarization of the macula densa and thereby induces TGF. (+info)
Vacuolation induced by VacA toxin of Helicobacter pylori requires the intracellular accumulation of membrane permeant bases, Cl(-) and water.
The protein vacuolating toxin A (VacA) of Helicobacter pylori converts late endosomes into large vacuoles in the presence of permeant bases. Here it is shown that this phenomenon corresponds to an accumulation of permeant bases and Cl(-) in HeLa cells and requires the presence of extracellular Cl(-). The net influx of Cl(-) is due to electroneutral, Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter-mediated transport. Cell vacuolation leads to cell volume increase, consistent with water flux into the cell, while hyper-osmotic media decreased vacuole formation. These data represent the first evidence that VacA-treated cells undergo an osmotic unbalance, reinforcing the hypothesis that the VacA chloride channel is responsible for cell vacuolation. (+info)
Bumetanide annihilation of amphotericin B-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity is due to its effect on cellular K+ flux.
The antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B causes considerable toxic effects during clinical therapy. We have shown previously that amphotericin B-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis were eradicated by the Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransport inhibitor bumetanide. To elucidate the role of K+ flux and the activity of Na+, K+ ATPase and Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransport in apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by amphotericin B alone and combined with bumetanide, we quantified the influx and efflux of K+ of mesothelioma cells (P31) using the K+ analogue 86Rb+ with ouabain (100 micromol/L) as the K+ influx probe. To determine the susceptibility of Candida albicans to amphotericin B when combined with bumetanide we used a plate diffusion method. Amphotericin B or bumetanide alone significantly stimulated 86Rb+ efflux during the first 15 min. However, when added simultaneously, the cellular 86Rb+ efflux was markedly decreased. Amphotericin B (3 mg/L) had no effect on immediate (15 min) total 86Rb+ influx. When bumetanide (100 micromol/L) was added, the total 86Rb+ influx was markedly reduced due to inhibition of augmented Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransport and low Na+, K+ ATPase activity. Bumetanide did not affect the susceptibility of C. albicans to amphotericin B, which suggests that bumetanide or related drugs could be used in antifungal therapy to increase amphotericin B effectiveness without increasing its adverse effects. We suggest that bumetanide hampering of amphotericin B-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis could be due to an immediate reduction of cellular K+ efflux as well as disordered K+ influx. (+info)
Functional properties of the apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoforms.
The bumetanide-sensitive Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter (BSC1) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the apical membrane of the mammalian thick ascending limb of Henle. Three isoforms of the cotransporter, known as A, B, and F, exhibit axial expression along the thick ascending limb. We report here a functional comparison of the three isoforms from mouse kidney. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the mBSC1-A isoform showed higher capacity of transport, with no difference in the amount of surface expression. Kinetic characterization revealed divergent affinities for the three cotransported ions. The observed EC(50) values for Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) were 5.0 +/- 3.9, 0.96 +/- 0.16, and 22.2 +/- 4.8 mm for mBSC1-A; 3.0 +/- 0.6, 0.76 +/- 0.07, and 11.6 +/- 0.7 mm for mBSC1-B; and 20.6 +/- 7.2, 1.54 +/- 0.16, and 29.2 +/- 2.1 mm for mBSC1-F, respectively. Bumetanide sensitivity was higher in mBSC1-B compared with the mBSC1-A and mBSC1-F isoforms. All three transporters were partially inhibited by hypotonicity but to different extents. The cell swelling-induced inhibition profile was mBSC1-F > mBSC1-B > mBSC1-A. The function of the Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter was not affected by extracellular pH or by the addition of metolazone, 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), or R(+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1-H-indenyl-5-yl)-o xy]acetic acid (DIOA) to the extracellular medium. In contrast, exposure of oocytes to HgCl(2) before the uptake period reduced the activity of the cotransporter. The effect of HgCl(2) was dose-dependent, and mBSC1-A and mBSC1-B exhibited higher affinity than mBSC1-F. Overall, the functional comparison of the murine apical renal-specific Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter isoforms A, B, and F reveals important functional, pharmacological, and kinetic differences, with both physiological and structural implications. (+info)
The flavonol quercetin activates basolateral K(+) channels in rat distal colon epithelium.
1. The flavonol quercetin has been shown to activate a Cl(-) secretion in rat colon. Unlike the secretory activity of the related isoflavone genistein, quercetin's secretory activity does not depend on cyclic AMP; instead, it depends on Ca(2+). We investigated the possible involvement of Ca(2+) dependent basolateral K(+) channels using apically permeabilized rat distal colon epithelium mounted in Ussing chambers. 2. In intact epithelium, quercetin induced an increase in short-circuit current (I(sc)), which was diminished by the Cl(-) channel blockers NPPB and DPC, but not by glibenclamide, DIDS or anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. The effect of the flavonol was also inhibited by several serosally applied K(+) channel blockers (Ba(2+), quinine, clotrimazole, tetrapentylammonium, 293B), whereas other K(+) channel blockers failed to influence the quercetin-induced increase in I(sc) (tetraethylammonium, charybdotoxin). 3. The apical membrane was permeabilized by mucosal addition of nystatin and a serosally directed K(+) gradient was applied. The successful permeabilization was confirmed by experiments demonstrating the failure of bumetanide to inhibit the carbachol-induced current. 4. In apically permeabilized epithelium, quercetin induced a K(+) current (I(K)), which was neither influenced by ouabain nor by bumetanide. Whereas DPC, NPPB, charybdotoxin and 293B failed to inhibit this I(K), quinine, Ba(2+), clotrimazole and tetrapentylammonium were effective blockers of this current. 5. We conclude from these results that at least part of the quercetin-induced Cl(-) secretion can be explained by an activation of basolateral K(+) channels. (+info)
Contribution of Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter to high-[K(+)](o)- induced swelling and EAA release in astrocytes.
We hypothesized that high extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o))-mediated stimulation of Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) may result in a net gain of K(+) and Cl(-) and thus lead to high-[K(+)](o)-induced swelling and glutamate release. In the current study, relative cell volume changes were determined in astrocytes. Under 75 mM [K(+)](o,) astrocytes swelled by 20.2 +/- 4.9%. This high-[K(+)](o)-mediated swelling was abolished by the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide (10 microM, 1.0 +/- 3.1%; P < 0.05). Intracellular (36)Cl(-) accumulation was increased from a control value of 0.39 +/- 0.06 to 0.68 +/- 0.05 micromol/mg protein in response to 75 mM [K(+)](o). This increase was significantly reduced by bumetanide (P < 0.05). Basal intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) was reduced from 19.1 +/- 0.8 to 16.8 +/- 1.9 mM by bumetanide (P < 0.05). [Na(+)](i) decreased to 8.4 +/- 1.0 mM under 75 mM [K(+)](o) and was further reduced to 5.2 +/- 1.7 mM by bumetanide. In addition, the recovery rate of [Na(+)](i) on return to 5.8 mM [K(+)](o) was decreased by 40% in the presence of bumetanide (P < 0.05). Bumetanide inhibited high-[K(+)](o)-induced (14)C-labeled D-aspartate release by ~50% (P < 0.05). These results suggest that NKCC1 contributes to high-[K(+)](o)-induced astrocyte swelling and glutamate release. (+info)