Muscle fiber types of human extraocular muscles: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study.
PURPOSE: To classify muscle fibers of human extraocular muscle (hEOM) and to compare them to previous studies on hEOM, as well as to nonhuman EOM classification schemes and skeletal muscle fiber types. METHODS: Muscle fibers cut in different muscle planes were followed on consecutive cross sections and typed with regard to their oxidative profile in combination with their myosin-immunohistochemical characteristics. RESULTS: Three zones were observed. In the global layer three muscle fiber types were observed: global layer singly innervated granular fibers, 79.4 +/- 8.1 microm (perimeter [values at midmuscle region] +/- SD); 59%; global layer singly innervated coarse fibers (80.3 +/- 10.8 microm; 21%); and global layer multiply innervated muscle fibers (4.1 +/- 9.7 microm; 21%). Two muscle fiber types were detected in the orbital layer: orbital layer singly innervated muscle fibers (54.1 +/- 8.5 microm; 83%) and orbital layer multiply innervated muscle fibers (53.5 +/- 7.6 microm; 17%). Three muscle fiber types were differed in the marginal zone: marginal zone singly innervated muscle fibers (83.1 +/- 15.8 microm; 56%), marginal zone multiply innervated low oxidative muscle fibers (84.4 +/- 23.3 microm; 7%), and marginal zone multiply innervated high oxidative muscle fibers (88.4 +/- 14.5 microm; 37%). Coexpressions of developmental myosin heavy chain isoforms and fast myosin heavy chain isoform were detected mainly in the marginal zone. CONCLUSIONS: hEOMs resemble mammalian EOM with regard to their organization. However, in addition to an inner global layer and an orbital layer an external marginal zone was described for the first time in hEOM in the present study. (+info)
Dystrophin and utrophin influence fiber type composition and post-synaptic membrane structure.
The X-linked muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by the lack of dystrophin in muscle. Protein structure predictions, patient mutations, in vitro binding studies and transgenic and knockout mice suggest that dystrophin plays a mechanical role in skeletal muscle, linking the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix through its direct interaction with the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). Although a signaling role for dystrophin has been postulated, definitive data have been lacking. To identify potential non-mechanical roles of dystrophin, we tested the ability of various truncated dystrophin transgenes to prevent any of the skeletal muscle abnormalities associated with the double knockout mouse deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related protein utrophin. We show that restoration of the DAPC with Dp71 does not prevent the structural abnormalities of the post-synaptic membrane or the abnormal oxidative properties of utrophin/dystrophin-deficient muscle. In marked contrast, a dystrophin protein lacking the cysteine-rich domain, which is unable to prevent dystrophy in the mdx mouse, is able to ameliorate these abnormalities in utrophin/dystrophin-deficient mice. These experiments provide the first direct evidence that in addition to a mechanical role and relocalization of the DAPC, dystrophin and utrophin are able to alter both structural and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. In addition, these mice provide unique insights into skeletal muscle fiber type composition. (+info)
GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle.
Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers. (+info)
Autosomal dominant myopathy: missense mutation (Glu-706 --> Lys) in the myosin heavy chain IIa gene.
We here report on a human myopathy associated with a mutation in a fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene, and also the genetic defect in a hereditary inclusion body myopathy. The disorder has previously been described in a family with an "autosomal dominant myopathy, with joint contractures, ophthalmoplegia, and rimmed vacuoles." Linkage analysis and radiation hybrid mapping showed that the gene locus (Human Genome Map locus name: IBM3) is situated in a 2-Mb region of chromosome 17p13, where also a cluster of MyHC genes is located. These include the genes encoding embryonic, IIa, IIx/d, IIb, perinatal, and extraocular MyHCs. Morphological analysis of muscle biopsies from patients from the family indicated to us that the type 2A fibers frequently were abnormal, whereas other fiber types appeared normal. This observation prompted us to investigate the MyHC-IIa gene, since MyHC-IIa is the major isoform in type 2A fibers. The complete genomic sequence for this gene was deduced by using an "in silico" strategy. The gene, found to consist of 38 exons, was subjected to a complete mutation scan in patients and controls. We identified a missense mutation, Glu-706 --> Lys, which is located in a highly conserved region of the motor domain, the so-called SH1 helix region. By conformational changes this region communicates activity at the nucleotide-binding site to the neck region, resulting in the lever arm swing. The mutation in this region is likely to result in a dysfunctional myosin, compatible with the disorder in the family. (+info)
Cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations to voluntary wheel running in the mouse.
In this paper, we describe the effects of voluntary cage wheel exercise on mouse cardiac and skeletal muscle. Inbred male C57/Bl6 mice (age 6-8 wk; n = 12) [corrected] ran an average of 4.3 h/24 h, for an average distance of 6.8 km/24 h, and at an average speed of 26.4 m/min. A significant increase in the ratio of heart mass to body mass (mg/g) was evident after 2 wk of voluntary exercise, and cardiac atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ventricles after 4 wk of voluntary exercise. A significant increase in the percentage of fibers expressing myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIa was observed in both the gastrocnemius and the tibialis anterior (TA) by 2 wk, and a significant decrease in the percentage of fibers expressing IIb MHC was evident in both muscles after 4 wk of voluntary exercise. The TA muscle showed a greater increase in the percentage of IIa MHC-expressing fibers than did the gastrocnemius muscle (40 and 20%, respectively, compared with 10% for nonexercised). Finally, the number of oxidative fibers as revealed by NADH-tetrazolium reductase histochemical staining was increased in the TA but not the gastrocnemius after 4 wk of voluntary exercise. All results are relative to age-matched mice housed without access to running wheels. Together these data demonstrate that voluntary exercise in mice results in cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations consistent with endurance exercise. (+info)
Induction of a fatigue-resistant phenotype in rabbit fast muscle by small daily amounts of stimulation.
We have shown that fatigue resistance can be induced in rabbit tibialis anterior (TA) muscles without excessive power loss by continuous stimulation at low frequencies, such as 5 Hz, and that the same result is obtained by delivering a 10-Hz pattern in equal on/off periods. Here we ask whether the same phenotype could be produced with daily amounts of stimulation that would be more appropriate for clinical use. We stimulated rabbit TA muscles for 6 wk, alternating fixed 30-min on periods of stimulation at 10 Hz with off periods of different duration. All patterns transformed fast-glycolytic fibers into fast-oxidative fibers. The muscles had fatigue-resistant properties but retained a higher contractile speed and power production than muscles transformed completely to the slow-oxidative type. We conclude that in the rabbit as little as one 30-min period of stimulation in 24 h can result in a substantial increase in the resistance of the muscle to fatigue. (+info)
Evidence for rectus extraocular muscle pulleys in rodents.
PURPOSE: Extraocular rectus muscle (EOM) pulleys are important determinants of orbital biomechanics in humans. In this study, the authors evaluated orbital connective tissue morphology, specifically characterizing rectus muscle pulleys, in the rat, a species with laterally placed eyes, afoveate vision, and a less complex visuomotor repertoire than primates. METHODS: Adult rat orbits were paraffin processed and serially sectioned for histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Frozen sections of enucleated globes with intact EOMs and associated connective tissue were also studied with myosin immunohistochemistry and histochemistry for the mitochondrial enzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-tetrazolium reductase, to delineate the orbital layer relationship with the pulley tissue. RESULTS: Focal condensations of collagenous connective tissue were found in relationship to the rectus muscles in the equatorial Tenon's fascia, similar to those described as human recti muscle pulleys. The fibroelastic pulley rings were coupled to adjacent EOM pulleys by bands containing collagen and elastin. The coupling of pulleys to the orbital walls was significantly less than that previously described in humans. As in humans, there was a dual insertion of rodent rectus muscles, with the orbital layer inserting on the muscle pulley and the global layer attaching to the sclera. CONCLUSIONS: The data support the presence of structures in the rat orbit that are the morphologic equivalent of the human rectus pulley system. Although rodent and human pulleys were similar in many respects, there were species-specific properties that may relate to established differences in orbital anatomy and/or visuomotor behavior. These data extend the rectus muscle pulley concept to rodents and may provide insight into pulley structure-function relationships. (+info)
Histoenzymology and morphometry of the masticatory muscles of tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758).
Samples of the anterior and posterior regions of the masseter and temporal muscles and of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle of 4 adult male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were removed and stained with HE and submitted to the m-ATPase reaction (with alkaline and acid preincubation) and to the NADH-TR and SDH reactions. The results of the histoenzymologic reactions were similar, except for acid reversal which did not occur in fibers of the fast glycolytic (FG) type in the mandibular locomotor muscles. FG fibers had a larger area and were more frequent in all regions studied. No significant differences in frequency or area of each fiber type were detected, considering the anterior and posterior regions of the masseter and temporal muscles. The frequency of fibers of the fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) and slow oxidative (SO) types and of FOG area differed significantly between the anterior belly of the digastric muscle and the mandibular locomotor muscle. The predominance of fast twitch (FG and FOG) fibers and the multipenniform and bipenniform internal architecture of the masseter and temporal muscles, respectively, are characteristics that permit the powerful bite typical of tufted capuchin monkeys. (+info)