Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya.
To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders. (+info)
Deaths among children aged < or =5 years from farm machinery runovers--Iowa, Kentucky, and Wisconsin, 1995-1998, and United States, 1990-1995.
Children who reside on family farms are exposed to unique hazards. Young children may be present where work is being done and may wander into areas where machines are operating or may be passengers on these machines. This report describes four fatal incidents in Iowa, Kentucky, and Wisconsin in which young children were run over by farm machinery, summarizes national mortality data to characterize this problem, and provides recommendations for expanded prevention efforts. (+info)
Responses of horses to trailer design, duration, and floor area during commercial transportation to slaughter.
Nine trailer loads of horses (n = 306) transported to slaughter facilities with distances ranging 596 to 2,496 km were studied to characterize the type of horses used in commercial markets and the physiological responses and number of injuries due to transportation under summer environmental conditions. Slaughter horse candidates were middle-aged (11.4+/-.4 yr), possessed moderately fleshy body condition, weighed 432+/-3.3 kg, and were of Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred breeding. The mean weight loss during commercial transport was 4%. The percentage of injured horses was greater (P < .05) for two-tiered "pot-belly" (29.2%) compared with straight-deck (8.0%) trailers; however, the stress indicators of cortisol and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and rectal temperature showed greater (P < .05) responses following transport in straight-deck trailers. As trip duration increased from 5 h 45 min to 30 h, muscle fatigue (lactate concentration) and dehydration (hematocrit and total protein concentration) were the major physiological considerations, especially in durations over 27 h. The percentage of horses injured was less (P < .05) in trailers with 1.14 to 1.31 m2 of floor area per horse than in trailers with 1.40 to 1.54 m2 of floor area per horse. However, most physiological responses (white blood cell count, total protein concentration, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio) to transportation were less (P < .05) in horses provided with the greater floor area. (+info)
Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with use of LPG-powered (propane) forklifts in industrial settings--Iowa, 1998.
In 1998, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) and Iowa State University (ISU) Extension Department, with the assistance of local health departments, investigated a series of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings associated with the use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG)-powered forklifts in light industry. In each episode, forklifts emitting high CO concentration levels were operated in inadequately ventilated warehouse and production facilities, which resulted in high CO accumulations. Employees at each site developed symptoms of CO poisoning, and some employees received inadequate or inappropriate medical care. This report summarizes the investigations and provides recommendations to prevent such incidents. (+info)
Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway.
Car painters are exposed to organic solvents during their work. Several sets of official regulations have therefore been adopted in Norway in recent years to reduce the exposure. This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages and relating them to the limit values in Norway. Both stationary and personal monitoring were performed. In addition, the occurrence of acute symptoms in the nervous system, skin and upper airways, the use of personal protective equipment and the workers' satisfaction with the ventilation were determined using the results of a questionnaire survey among the car painters from 11 car-painting garages (N=28). A control group of unexposed workers (N=18) was used for comparison. All air samples showed low levels of exposure, far below the limit values. The highest levels were found for toluene; about half the limit value in two garages (11.5 and 12.5 ppm). No significant difference was found between the exposed and unexposed workers in the frequency of acute symptoms. Most workers reported to always use gloves, overalls and respiratory protective equipment during the car painting. The study indicates that the exposure to organic solvents is low in the examined car-painting garages, and the risk of adverse health effects related to organic solvents is probably low in these workplaces. (+info)
Local road traffic activity and the prevalence, severity, and persistence of wheeze in school children: combined cross sectional and longitudinal study.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between local road traffic activity and the occurrence, severity, and persistence of wheeze in children. METHODS: Data on wheeze and asthma were collected in a cross sectional questionnaire survey of 22,968 primary school children (age 4-11) and 27,826 secondary school children (age 11-16) in the Nottingham area. Direct measures of road traffic flow were made in the locality of each school and combined with Local Authority traffic data for major roads to estimate local traffic activity in vehicle metres/day/km2. Assessment of the effects of potential confounders was performed in nested case-control groups of 6576 primary and 5936 secondary children. Data on frequency of wheeze were collected for the cases to study disease severity. Longitudinal data on a historical cohort of 883 children who reported wheeze when aged 4-11 in 1988 were used to study the persistence of wheeze into adolescence. RESULTS: Unadjusted prevalence of wheeze in the past year within schools varied widely but was not associated with traffic activity in the school locality (weighted regression coefficient beta = -0.01, p = 0.93 for primary schools, beta = -0.18, p = 0.26 for secondary schools). The risk of wheeze in individual primary school children was not associated with traffic activity analysed as a continuous variable, although there was some suggestion of a weak, non-linear plateau effect. Similar effects were found for diagnosed asthma and recent cough. There was no evidence of any relation between traffic activity and risk of wheeze in secondary school children. There were positive but non-significant dose related effects of traffic activity on wheeze severity in primary and secondary children and on persistence of wheeze in the longitudinal cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Traffic activity in the school locality is not a major determinant of wheeze in children. (+info)
Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs.
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2% of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the potential susceptibility of selected populations (e.g., iron-deficient) to Mn exposure, and addresses future research needs for Mn. (+info)
Survey on health status of heavy vehicle drivers in Klang valley.
A survey was carried out using a medical examination format that was prepared by the Malaysian Medical Association. The findings of the survey show that of the 266 cases surveyed, 64 drivers (24% of cases surveyed) are either totally unfit to drive or temporarily unfit to drive heavy goods and passenger vehicles. This is clear indication that the current format that is being used by the Road Transport Department is inadequate and needs to be reviewed. It must also be stressed that all the above 64 drivers have been certified fit using the existing Road Transport Department format and are currently driving in our highways and roads. Heavy vehicle goods and passenger vehicle drivers if not properly examined and medically certified are not only be endangering their own lives but also that of others. It is therefore recommended that based on the data available from this survey, the Road Transport Department should seriously consider adopting the medical examination format that was formalised by the Malaysian Medical Association and used in this survey. (+info)