Influence of dietary fat on the nutrient intake and growth of children from 1 to 5 y of age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project.
BACKGROUND: Excessive decreases in fat intake in young children have been linked with low intakes of energy and nutrients and possible growth failure. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated nutrient intakes and growth of healthy children with different fat intakes during the first 5 y of life. DESIGN: In the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP), 7-mo-old children were randomly assigned to an intervention aimed at reduced consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol (n = 540) or to a control group (n = 522). This analysis comprises data for children for whom > or = 6 of 8 possible 3-4-d food records were available (n = 730; 353 females). Children were divided according to fat intake pattern (percentage of energy) between the ages of 13 mo and 5 y into groups with continuously high fat intake (5% of children), increasing fat intake (5%), continuously low fat intake (5%), decreasing fat intake (5%), and average fat intake (80%). Children's energy and nutrient intakes and growth were then compared by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Fat intake at 13 mo of age was particularly low (21% of energy) in the increasing fat intake group and in the continuously low fat intake group (22% of energy at 13 mo; 26% of energy at 5 y). Growth of children in all 5 fat intake groups, however, was not significantly different throughout the study period. Intakes of vitamins and minerals, except of vitamin D, met recommended dietary allowances in all fat intake groups. CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes and growth were not significantly different in children whose fat intake patterns differed between 13 mo and 5 y of age. (+info)
Quality and safety evaluation of genetically engineered rice with soybean glycinin: analyses of the grain composition and digestibility of glycinin in transgenic rice.
The composition of nutritionally and physiologically important molecules in transgenic rice with the soybean glycinin gene was determined and compared with that of a non-transgenic control. Except for the levels of protein, amino acids and moisture, no marked differences were found between the two kinds of rice. The protein content of the transgenic rice was about 20% higher than the control (control, 6.5 g/100 g; transgenic, 8.0 g/100 g) with a concomitantly lower moisture content. This increased protein content mainly resulted from the increased glycinin expressed in the transgenic rice, and the protein was susceptible to gastric and intestinal digestion juices. In parallel with the increased protein content, some important amino acids lacking in quantity in normal rice were replenished. (+info)
Dietary chromic oxide does not affect the utilization of organic compounds but can alter the utilization of mineral salts in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.
This study was conducted to determine whether the level of chromic oxide supplemented to diets containing gelatinized starch as the carbohydrate source affects digestibility, body composition, growth performances, and liver enzyme activities in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings were fed diets containing gelatinized corn starch as the carbohydrate source and several levels of chromic oxide (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg) for 6 wk. No effect of dietary chromium level was detected on carbon, nitrogen, or dry matter digestibility. Calcium and phosphorus digestibility were higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with 5 g/kg chromic oxide than in fish fed the other supplemented diets. Dietary chromium did not affect dry matter, carbon, nitrogen, protein, or lipid concentrations in fish. However, fish fed 5 g/kg chromic oxide generally had higher levels of calcium, phosphorus, and ash than fish fed the other Cr-containing diets. Chromium concentration was significantly higher in fish fed the diets with 0.5 and 1% chromic oxide than in fish fed the control diet. Chromium supplementation of the diets did not affect the specific growth rate, the food efficiency ratio, the protein efficiency ratio, or, protein or nitrogen retention of the fish. Blood glucose and the activity of several liver enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were unaffected by dietary chromic oxide. Alanine aminotransferase was lower in the fish fed the diet with 10 g/kg of chromic oxide than in unsupplemented controls. Our results indicate that chromic oxide can be used as a neutral marker in fish nutrition studies involving organic compounds, but not mineral salts. (+info)
Interaction of cattle health/immunity and nutrition.
The usual means of assessing the health of newly received beef cattle susceptible to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are subjective, typically involving visual evaluation aided by minimal clinical measurements. Recent evidence based on the occurrence of pneumonic lung lesions at slaughter indicates a need for more accurate methods of diagnosing BRD. Inadequate passive immune transfer at birth may be an important risk factor in susceptibility to BRD, suggesting the need for management to improve passive transfer success rates. Preweaning management and vaccination practices offer opportunities for beef cattle producers to improve the immune status of newly weaned calves and decrease postweaning BRD. Feeding diets with higher levels of concentrate typically improves performance by newly weaned or received cattle, as does feeding diets supplemented with protein; however, limited data suggest that increasing concentrate and protein in receiving diets increases the rate and severity of subjectively determined BRD morbidity. Research with receiving diet concentrate/protein level relative to humoral and cell-mediated immune function coupled with indicators of health and performance is needed. Supplemental B vitamins are sometimes useful in receiving diets, but the effects have been variable, presumably reflecting differences in stress and associated feed intake responses. Vitamin E added to receiving diets to supply > or = 400 IU/animal daily seems beneficial for increasing gain and decreasing BRD morbidity; however, further dose titration experiments are needed. Supplemental Zn, Cu, Se, and Cr can alter immune function of newly received calves, and some field trials have shown decreases in BRD morbidity rate with supplementation; however, several experiments have shown no performance or health/immune benefits from supplementation of these trace minerals. Formulation of receiving diets should take into account decreased feed intake by highly stressed, newly received beef cattle and known nutrient deficiencies, but fortification of such diets with trace minerals beyond the levels needed to compensate for these effects is difficult to justify from present data. (+info)
Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations.
Benefits of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn) provided by Zn oxide (ZnO) to 21-d conventionally weaned pigs in the nursery have been documented; however, several management questions remain. We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effect on growth from feeding 3,000 ppm Zn as ZnO during different weeks of the nursery period. In Exp. 1 (n = 138, 11.5 d of age, 3.8 kg BW) and Exp. 2 (n = 246, 24.5 d of age, 7.2 kg BW), pigs were fed either basal diets containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn (adequate) or the same diet with an additional 3,000 ppm Zn (high) supplied as ZnO. Pigs were fed four or two dietary phases in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, that changed in dietary ingredients and nutrient content (lysine and crude protein) to meet the changing physiological needs of the pigs for the 28-d nursery period. Dietary Zn treatments were 1) adequate Zn fed wk 1 to 4, 2) high Zn fed wk 1, 3) high Zn fed wk 2, 4) high Zn fed wk 1 and 2, 5) high Zn fed wk 2 and 3, and 6) high Zn fed wk 1 to 4. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed high Zn for wk 1 and 2 or the entire 28-d nursery period had the greatest (P < .05) ADG. During any week, pigs fed high Zn had greater concentrations of hepatic metallothionein and Zn in plasma, liver, and kidney than those pigs fed adequate Zn (P < .05). In summary, both early- and traditionally weaned pigs need to be fed pharmacological concentrations of Zn provided as ZnO for a minimum of 2 wk immediately after weaning to enhance growth. (+info)
Enhancing effect of dietary vinegar on the intestinal absorption of calcium in ovariectomized rats.
We studied the effect of dietary vinegar on calcium absorption by using ovariectomized rats fed on a low-calcium diet. The apparent absorption of calcium was higher when the rats were fed on a diet containing 1.6% vinegar for 32 days than when fed on a diet without vinegar (P < 0.05). The calcium content in the femur of the rats given diets containing 0.4% and 1.6% vinegar were also higher (P < 0.05). The serum parathyroid hormone level was lower and the crypt depth of the duodenum thicker in the rats fed on a diet containing 1.6% vinegar (P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary vinegar enhanced intestinal calcium absorption by improving calcium solubility and by the trophic effect of the acetic acid contained in vinegar, which would reduce the bone turnover caused by ovariectomy and be helpful in preventing osteoporosis. (+info)
Nondigestibility characteristics of inulin and oligofructose in humans.
The ileostomy model is considered to be a reliable model to reflect small bowel absorption. Studies in ileostomy subjects have shown that inulin and oligofructose pass through the small bowel without degradation and without influencing the absorption of nitrogen, fat, starch, calcium, magnesium or zinc. Inulin and oligofructose do not have any considerable effect on cholesterol absorption or bile acid excretion. (+info)
Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.
Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans. (+info)