The cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: 9-year follow-up of a case.
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare multiple congenital anomaly with a low survival rate. There are few reports of long-term survival in this condition. We describe the findings and management of a 9-year-old survivor of CCMS, outline the importance of early intervention and multidisciplinary team approach. The child presented in the neonatal period in respiratory distress with classical features of the syndrome. Aggressive initial respiratory management was later followed up with an integrated multidisciplinary team approach. He has been carefully followed up for nine years now, illustrating well, the course of the syndrome. (+info)
Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a case report.
Bony ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a male patient was not diagnosed until the patient reached his early teens, at which time the condition was treated with a costochondral graft. At the time of treatment, there was an expectation that further orthognathic surgery would be required to correct the skeletal deformity. However, with the release of the ankylosis and growth of the costochondral graft, a good functional and esthetic result was achieved without further surgery. It is important that family dentists be aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of TMJ ankylosis, to allow early diagnosis and treatment. (+info)
The fetal mandible: a 2D and 3D sonographic approach to the diagnosis of retrognathia and micrognathia.
OBJECTIVE: To define parameters that enable the objective diagnosis of anomalies of the position and/or size of the fetal mandible in utero. DESIGN: Fetuses at 18-28 gestational weeks were examined by two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. The study included normal fetuses and fetuses with syndromes associated with known mandible pathology: Pierre Robin sequence or complex (n = 8); hemifacial microsomia (Treacher-Collins syndrome, n = 3); postaxial acrofacial dysostosis (n = 1). Fetuses with Down syndrome (n = 8) and cleft lip and palate without Pierre Robin sequence or complex (n = 18) were also studied. Retrognathia was assessed through the measurement of the inferior facial angle, defined on a mid-sagittal view, by the crossing of: 1) the line orthogonal to the vertical part of the forehead at the level of the synostosis of the nasal bones (reference line); 2) the line joining the tip of the mentum and the anterior border of the more protruding lip (profile line). Micrognathia was assessed through the calculation of the mandible width/maxilla width ratio on axial views obtained at the alveolar level. Mandible and maxilla widths were measured 10 mm posteriorly to the anterior osteous border. RESULTS: In normal fetuses, the inferior facial angle was constant over the time span studied. The mean (standard deviation) value of the inferior facial angle was 65.5 (8.13) degree. Consequently, an inferior facial angle value below 49.2 degree (mean - 2 standard deviations) defined retrognathism. All the fetuses with syndromes associated with mandible pathology had inferior facial angle values below the cut-off value. Using 49.2 degree or the rounded-up value of 50 degree as a cut-off point, the inferior facial angle had a sensitivity of 1.0, a specificity of 0.989, a positive predictive value of 0.750 and a negative predictive value of 1.0 to predict retrognathia. In normal fetuses, the mandible width/maxilla width ratio was constant over the time interval studied. The mean (standard deviation) value was 1.017 (0.116). Consequently, a mandible width/maxilla width ratio < 0.785 defined micrognathism. Mandible width/maxilla width ratio values were below this cut-off point in eight and in the normal range in four fetuses with syndromes associated with mandible pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Retrognathia and micrognathia are conditions that can be separately assessed. The use of inferior facial angle and mandible width/maxilla width ratio should help sonographic recognition and characterization of fetal retrognathic and micrognathic mandibles in utero. (+info)
Maxillo-nasal dysplasia, Binder's syndrome: review of the literature and case report.
A 12-year-old girl with maxillo-nasal dysplasia (Binder's syndrome), featuring maxillary hypoplasia and relative mandibular prognathism, presented with a Class III incisal relationship. Her treatment was managed orthodontically. The principal features of the syndrome and management of these cases is discussed. (+info)
Three-dimensional ultrasonographic presentation of micrognathia.
OBJECTIVE: To present the variable appearance of micrognathia in fetuses by three-dimensional ultrasonography and to describe practical methods for analysis of these volume data. METHODS: Three-dimensional multiplanar imaging and surface-rendering techniques were used to show various syndromes and diagnostic approaches for the evaluation of fetal micrognathia. RESULTS: Nine cases of fetal micrognathia are presented. Orthogonal multiplanar views were used to obtain a midsagittal facial profile. Examples of micrognathia include 3 cases of Pierre Robin sequence, cerebrocostomandibular syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, and hypochondrogenesis. Diagnostic pitfalls for micrognathia are also shown. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional multiplanar imaging increases the likelihood that a true midline sagittal view of the facial profile is being analyzed. Surface rendering provides another way to qualitatively evaluate the fetal chin from different viewing perspectives. Three-dimensional ultrasonographic methods are useful adjuncts to the preliminary diagnostic impression from two-dimensional ultrasonography. (+info)
Moulding of the generate to control open bite during mandibular distraction osteogenesis.
Distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton has become a widely accepted, safe, and effective means of craniofacial reconstructive surgery. Despite excellent results in general, there are still some uncertainties related to the procedure, such as development of an anterior open bite (AOB) during mandibular distraction. The aim of this study was to examine whether 'moulding of the generate', i.e. use of intermaxillary elastics during the active distraction phase is possible to close the mandibular plane angle and open bite. Three subjects, 13- and 15-year-old males and a 7-year-old female, underwent mandibular linear and angular bilateral distraction osteogenesis with moulding of the generate. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before the introduction of elastics and following distraction, once the activation was stopped and the patients were ready for the consolidation phase. Conventional cephalometric measurements were used to assess possible changes in the mandibular plane angle and incisor position. Three different anchorage systems (dental, orthopaedic, and skeletal) were used for placement of the intermaxillary elastics. Cephalometric examination showed that the mandibular plane angle was decreased during active distraction osteogenesis with the introduction of elastics and angulation of the distraction device. Depending on the type of elastic anchorage system, smaller or greater amounts of extrusion of the incisors were noted. Moulding of the generate during active distraction can be performed to reduce the mandibular plane angle and open bite. To prevent unwanted dentoalveolar changes from occurring during elastic traction, skeletal rather than dental fixation of the elastics is recommended. Intrusive mechanics may be incorporated into the orthodontic appliances to balance extrusive force by the moulding elastics. (+info)
Collagen XI sequence variations in nonsyndromic cleft palate, Robin sequence and micrognathia.
Cleft palate is a common birth defect, but its etiopathogenesis is mostly unknown. Several studies have shown that cleft palate has a strong genetic component. Robin sequence consists of three of the following four findings: micrognathia, glossoptosis, obstructive apnea, and cleft palate. While cleft palate is mainly nonsyndromic, about 80 percent of Robin sequence cases are associated with syndromes. Mutations in genes coding for cartilage collagens II and XI, COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2, have been shown to cause chondrodysplasias that are commonly associated with Robin sequence, micrognathia or cleft palate. We therefore analyzed a cohort of 24 patients with nonsyndromic Robin sequence, 17 with nonsyndromic cleft palate and 21 with nonsyndromic micrognathia for mutations in COL11A2. A total of 23 Robin sequence patients were also analyzed for mutations in COL2A1 and COL11A1. We detected two disease-associated mutations in patients with Robin sequence, an Arg to stop codon mutation in COL11A2 and a splicing mutation in COL11A1. Two putatively disease-associated sequence variations were found in COL11A1 in Robin sequence patients, one in COL11A2 in a patient with micrognathia and one in COL2A1 in two patients with Robin sequence. The results showed that sequence variations in these genes can play a role in the etiology of Robin sequence, cleft palate and micrognathia but are not common causes of these phenotypes. (+info)
Anterograde endotracheal intubation with a laryngeal mask airway and guidewire in an infant with micrognathia.
Tracheal intubation through a laryngeal mask airway is an alternative to secure the ventilation in patients with difficult airway. Different techniques have been described to intubate these patients. A case of micrognathia in remote location anesthesia is reported. Endotracheal intubation was unsuccessful with the conventional methods. A soft tip angiography guidewire was advanced through a laryngeal mask airway. The position of the catheter was confirmed by fluoroscopy. Laryngeal mask airway was removed after endotracheal tube was inserted over the guidewire. This technique is recommended as an alternative where fiberoptic bronchoscopy is unavailable and in emergency situations. (+info)