Cardiac sympathetic activity estimated by 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy after beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy.
Impaired cardiac sympathetic activity can be evaluated by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging. METHODS: We studied the significance of MIBG imaging for 24 patients (age 58+/-12 y) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We compared 12 patients (group A) treated with metoprolol (dose from 30-60 mg/d) with 12 patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients were studied before treatment, after 5 mo of treatment (only in group A) and after 1 y of treatment. Cardiac MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) and total defect score (TDS) from anterior planar and SPECT MIBG images, which were acquired in 4 h after tracer injection. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by echocardiography were also assessed. RESULTS: TDS decreased in both groups (in group A, from 30+/-7 through 23+/-9 to 18+/-10; P < 0.01, in group B, from 30+/-6 to 24+/-8; P < 0.01) and H/M was increased in both groups (in group A, from 1.87+/-0.31 through 2.03+/-0.28 to 2.14+/-0.29; P < 0.01, in group B, from 1.82+/-0.28 to 1.94+/-0.26; P < 0.05). But TDS and H/M were more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). LVEF was significantly increased in only group A (from 38+/-6 through 43+/-8 to 49%+/-9%; P < 0.01). NYHA improved in both groups (in group A, from mean 2.5 through 2.1 to 1.8; P < 0.01, in group B, from mean 2.6 to 2.1; P < 0.05) but was more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac function, symptom and cardiac sympathetic activity evaluated by MIBG images improved after the beta-blocker therapy more than with the treatment that used ACE inhibitors. (+info)
Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart.
Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation. (+info)
Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure.
A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of metoprolol stereoisomers in spontaneously hypertensive rat.
AIM: To study the combined pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model of metoprolol stereoisomers, and compare their inhibitory effects on cardiovascular system in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: The drug concentration in plasma was measured by the reversed phase HPLC and the drug effects were recorded by polygraph. The pharmacokinetic parameters and the PK-PD model parameters were calculated. RESULTS: The plasma concentration-time profiles were adequately described by two-compartment model. Differences of Vd between (+)-Met and (-)-Met were found. The relationships between effects and concentration of effect compartment were represented by the sigmoid-Emax model. The Css50 of Vmax, dp/dtmax, and HR inhibitory effects of (+)-Met were larger than those of (-)-Met. CONCLUSION: Stereo-selective drug distribution and different potencies of the inhibitory effects of (+)-Met and (-)-Met existed in SHR. (+info)
Alpha-adrenoceptor blockade prevents exercise-induced vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries.
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the role of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms during dynamic exercise in both normal and stenotic coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: Paradoxical vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries has been reported during dynamic exercise and may be due to several factors such as alpha-adrenergic drive, a decreased release of nitric oxide, platelet aggregation with release of serotonin, or a passive collapse of the vessel wall. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were studied at rest, during two levels of supine bicycle exercise and after 1.6 mg sublingual nitroglycerin. The alpha-blocker phentolamine was given to 16 patients before exercise, five of whom had also taken a beta-adrenergic-blocker the same morning. Ten patients served as controls. The cross-sectional areas of a normal and a stenotic coronary vessel were determined by biplane quantitative coronary arteriography. RESULTS: In the normal vessel segments, coronary cross-sectional area did not change after phentolamine injection, but increased in all patient groups similarly during exercise. Although coronary vasoconstriction existed in stenotic vessel segments in control patients, phentolamine-treated patients showed exercise-induced vasodilation without difference in patients with and without chronic beta-blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise-induced vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries is prevented by intracoronary administration of phentolamine. There was no difference in coronary vasomotion between patients receiving phentolamine alone and patients receiving phentolamine in addition to a beta-blocker. This finding suggests that exercise-induced vasoconstriction is mediated not only by endothelial dysfunction but also by alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. (+info)
Heart rate dependency of cardiac performance in heart failure patients treated with metoprolol.
AIMS: To investigate whether a low heart rate is necessary to maintain improvement in myocardial function after long-term treatment with a beta-blocker in patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients with congestive heart failure were investigated: 30 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy participating in a placebo-controlled trial (15 on placebo, 15 on metoprolol), and 18 patients treated by metoprolol in an open protocol. Investigations of spontaneous heart rate and of matched paced heart rates were performed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up by radionuclide angiography. There were significant signs of improvement in systolic indices of the spontaneous heart rate in the metoprolol-treated group (peak ejection rate: 0.98 to 1.32 end-diastolic volume.s-1, P = 0.015) as compared to placebo (1.14 to 1.19 end-diastolic volume.s-1, not significant). Similar effects were observed during the matched paced heart rate (peak ejection rate: metoprolol 0.91 to 1.38 end-diastolic volume.s-1, P = 0.037; placebo 1.22 to 1.12 end-diastolic volume.s-1, not significant). No effects were observed in the early peak filling rate. Left ventricular volumes decreased during metoprolol treatment, both for the spontaneous heart rate and during matched pacing. CONCLUSIONS: These data imply that beta-blocker treatment improves the force-frequency relationship of myocardial performance. A lower heart rate is not necessary to maintain cardiac function on a short-term basis, once myocardial recovery has occurred. (+info)
Prospective, randomized comparison of effect of long-term treatment with metoprolol or carvedilol on symptoms, exercise, ejection fraction, and oxidative stress in heart failure.
BACKGROUND: With beta-blocker use becoming more prevalent in treating chronic heart failure (CHF), the choice of drugs raises important theoretical and practical questions. Although the second-generation compound metoprolol is beta1-selective, the third-generation compound carvedilol is beta-nonselective, with ancillary pharmacological properties including alpha-blockade and antioxidant effects. A prospective comparison of these 2 agents can address the issue of optimal adrenergic blockade in selecting agents for therapy in CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients with symptomatic stable heart failure were randomly assigned to receive either carvedilol or metoprolol in addition to standard therapy for CHF. Measured variables included symptoms, exercise, ejection fraction, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an indirect marker of free radical activity. Metoprolol and carvedilol were well tolerated, and both patient groups showed beneficial effects of beta-blocker therapy in each of the measured parameters, with no between-group differences. Ejection fraction increased over 6 months from 18+/-6.3% to 23+/-8.7% (P<0.005) with metoprolol and from 19+/-8.5% to 25+/-9.9% (P<0.0005) with carvedilol (P=NS between groups). With metoprolol, TBARS values decreased from 4.7+/-0.9 nmol/mL at baseline to 4.2+/-1.5 nmol/mL at month 4 to 3.9+/-1.0 nmol/mL at month 6 (P<0.0001). With carvedilol, there was a parallel decline from 4.7+/-1.4 to 4.2+/-1.3 to 4.1+/-1.2 nmol/mL over the same time frame (P<0.025), with no between-group difference in these changes. CONCLUSIONS: Carvedilol and metoprolol showed parallel beneficial effects in the measured parameters over 6 months, with no relevant between-group differences in this heart failure population. (+info)
Long-term effects of carvedilol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with persistent left ventricular dysfunction despite chronic metoprolol. The Heart-Muscle Disease Study Group.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze whether long-term treatment with the nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent carvedilol may have beneficial effects in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), who are poor responders in terms of left ventricular (LV) function and exercise tolerance to chronic treatment with the selective beta-blocker metoprolol. BACKGROUND: Although metoprolol has been proven to be beneficial in the majority of patients with heart failure, a subset of the remaining patients shows long-term survival without satisfactory clinical improvement. METHODS: Thirty consecutive DCM patients with persistent LV dysfunction (ejection fraction < or =40%) and reduced exercise tolerance (peak oxygen consumption <25 ml/kg/min) despite chronic (>1 year) tailored treatment with metoprolol and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were enrolled in a 12-month, open-label, parallel trial and were randomized either to continue on metoprolol (n = 16, mean dosage 142+/-44 mg/day) or to cross over to maximum tolerated dosage of carvedilol (n = 14, mean dosage 74+/-23 mg/day). RESULTS: At 12 months, patients on carvedilol, compared with those continuing on metoprolol, showed a decrease in LV dimensions (end-diastolic volume -8+/-7 vs. +7+/-6 ml/m2, p = 0.053; end-systolic volume -7+/-5 vs. +6+/-4 ml/m2, p = 0.047), an improvement in LV ejection fraction (+7+/-3% vs. -1+/-2%, p = 0.045), a reduction in ventricular ectopic beats (-12+/-9 vs. +62+/-50 n/h, p = 0.05) and couplets (-0.5+/-0.4 vs. +1.5+/-0.6 n/h, p = 0.048), no significant benefit on symptoms and quality of life and a negative effect on peak oxygen consumption (-0.6+/-0.6 vs. +1.3+/-0.5 ml/kg/min, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In DCM patients who were poor responders to chronic metoprolol, carvedilol treatment was associated with favorable effects on LV systolic function and remodeling as well as on ventricular arrhythmias, whereas it had a negative effect on peak oxygen consumption. (+info)