N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia.
Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined by microdialysis using [3H]NAA to assess in vivo recovery. After induction of ischemia, [NAA]e increased linearly from 70 micromol/L to a peak level of 2 mmol/L after 2 to 3 hours before declining to 0.7 mmol/L at 7 hours. For comparison, [NAA]e was measured in striatum during global ischemia, revealing that [NAA]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA. (+info)
The effect of mannitol versus dimethyl thiourea at attenuating ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury to skeletal muscle.
OBJECTIVE: Mannitol is used as a treatment for skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in humans, despite the fact that its effectiveness in vivo is still disputed. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of mannitol in attenuating I/R injury at the microcirculatory level. METHODS: The study was designed as an experimental study with male Wistar rats. The main outcome measures were intravital microscopy, which was used to measure capillary perfusion, capillary and venular red blood cell velocity (VRBC), and leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat hind limb before and after ischemia. In addition, tissue injury was assessed during reperfusion with the fluorescent vital dyes bisbenzimide and ethidium bromide. Dimethyl thiourea (DMTU), a highly effective therapeutic agent of experimental I/R injury, was used as a positive control. RESULTS: No-flow ischemia (2 hour) resulted in a 40% drop in capillary perfusion, a decline in capillary and venular VRBC, and increased leukocyte venular adherence and tissue infiltration. Tissue injury increased to a constant level during reperfusion. Mannitol attenuated capillary malperfusion during the first 60 minutes of reperfusion and prevented a decline in capillary VRBC. However, mannitol did not reduce tissue injury or leukocyte adherence and infiltration during reperfusion. By comparison, DMTU not only prevented the perfusion deficits and the increases in leukocyte venular adherence and tissue infiltration but significantly reduced the magnitude of tissue injury. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that mannitol may be of limited value for the prevention of early reperfusion-induced injury after no-flow ischemia in skeletal muscle. By comparison, DMTU was highly efficacious by not only reducing microvascular perfusion deficits but by also reducing leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and the incidence of cellular injury. (+info)
Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog.
Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low. (+info)
Modulation of AV nodal and Hisian conduction by changes in extracellular space.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was infused directly into either the AV node or His bundle region. This resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the AV nodal or His-ventricular conduction time and in the AV nodal effective refractory period. Mannitol infusion eventually resulted in Wenckebach block (n = 6), which reversed with mannitol washout. The ratio of AV nodal to left ventricular ECS in tissue frozen immediately on the development of heart block (n = 8) was significantly higher in the region of block (4.53 +/- 0.61) compared with that in control preparations (2.23 +/- 0.35, n = 6, P < 0.01) and donor dog hearts (2.45 +/- 0.18, n = 11, P < 0.01) not exposed to mannitol. With lower mannitol rates (10% of total blood flow), AV nodal conduction times increased by 5-10% and the AV node became supersensitive to adenosine, acetylcholine, and carbachol, but not to norepinephrine. We conclude that mannitol-induced changes in AV node and His bundle ECS markedly alter conduction system electrophysiology and the sensitivity of conductive tissues to purinergic and cholinergic agonists. (+info)
Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro.
BACKGROUND: Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. AIMS: To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. METHODS: For resistance (R) measurements, colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers was exposed to luminal or serosal BFT-2 (1.25-10 nM) and after four hours morphological damage was measured on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using morphometry. F actin distribution was assessed using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Serosal BFT-2 for four hours was four-, two-, seven-, and threefold more potent than luminal BFT-2 in decreasing resistance, increasing epithelial 3H-mannitol permeability, and damaging crypt and surface colonocytes, respectively (p<0.05). Confocal microscopy showed reduced colonocyte F actin staining intensity after exposure to BFT-2. CONCLUSIONS: BFT-2 increases human colonic permeability and damages human colonic epithelial cells in vitro. These effects may be important in the development of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation caused by B fragilis in vivo. (+info)
Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine.
Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro. (+info)
A physiological barrier distal to the anatomic blood-brain barrier in a model of transvascular delivery.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a method for transvascular delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. The apparent global delivery of viral-sized iron oxide particles to the rat brain after BBB opening as seen on MR images was compared with the cellular and subcellular location and distribution of the particles. METHODS: Two dextran-coated superparamagnetic monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle contrast agents, MION and Feridex, were administered intraarterially in rats at 10 mg Fe/kg immediately after osmotic opening of the BBB with hyperosmolar mannitol. After 2 to 24 hours, iron distribution in the brain was evaluated first with MR imaging then by histochemical analysis and electron microscopy to assess perivascular and intracellular distribution. RESULTS: After BBB opening, MR images showed enhancement throughout the disrupted hemisphere for both Feridex and MION. Feridex histochemical staining was found in capillaries of the disrupted hemisphere. Electron microscopy showed that the Feridex particles passed the capillary endothelial cells but did not cross beyond the basement membrane. In contrast, after MION delivery, iron histochemistry was detected within cell bodies in the disrupted hemisphere, and the electron-dense MION core was detected intracellularly and extracellularly in the neuropil. CONCLUSION: MR images showing homogeneous delivery to the brain at the macroscopic level did not indicate delivery at the microscopic level. These data support the presence of a physiological barrier at the basal lamina, analogous to the podocyte in the kidney, distal to the anatomic (tight junction) BBB, which may limit the distribution of some proteins and viral particles after transvascular delivery to the brain. (+info)
Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite.
Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply. (+info)