Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride.
The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process. (+info)
Contributions of K+:Cl- cotransport and Na+/K+-ATPase to basolateral ion transport in malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.
Mechanisms of Na+ and K+ transport across the basolateral membrane of isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster were studied by examining the effects of ion substitution and putative inhibitors of specific ion transporters on fluid secretion rates, basolateral membrane potential and secreted fluid cation composition. Inhibition of fluid secretion by [(dihydroindenyl)oxy]alkanoic acid (DIOA) and bumetanide (10(-)4 mol l-1) suggested that a K+:Cl- cotransporter is the main route for K+ entry into the principal cells of the tubules. Differences in the effects of bumetanide on fluxes of K+ and Na+ are inconsistent with effects upon a basolateral Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter. Large differences in electrical potential across apical (>100 mV, lumen positive) and basolateral (<60 mV, cell negative) cell membranes suggest that a favourable electrochemical gradient for Cl- entry into the cell may be used to drive K+ into the cell against its electrochemical gradient, via a DIOA-sensitive K+:Cl- cotransporter. A Na+/K+-ATPase was also present in the basolateral membrane of the Malpighian tubules. Addition of 10(-)5 to 10(-)3 mol l-1 ouabain to unstimulated tubules depolarized the basolateral potential, increased the Na+ concentration of the secreted fluid by 50-73 % and increased the fluid secretion rate by 10-19 %, consistent with an increased availability of intracellular Na+. We suggest that an apical vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and a basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase are both stimulated by cyclic AMP. In cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules, K+ entry is stimulated by the increase in the apical membrane potential, which drives K+:Cl- cotransport at a faster rate, and by the stimulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Fluid secretion by cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules was reduced by 26 % in the presence of ouabain, suggesting that the Na+/K+-ATPase plays a minor role in K+ entry into the tubule cells. Malpighian tubules secreted a Na+-rich (150 mmol l-1) fluid at high rates when bathed in K+-free amino-acid-replete saline (AARS). Secretion in K+-free AARS was inhibited by amiloride and bafilomycin A1, but not by bumetanide or hydrochlorothiazide, which inhibit Na+:Cl- cotransport. There was no evidence for a Na+ conductance in the basolateral membrane of unstimulated or cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules. Possible mechanisms of Na+ entry into the tubule cells include cotransport with organic solutes such as amino acids and glucose. (+info)
A cell surface mucin specifically expressed in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.
An invertebrate intestinal mucin gene, AgMuc1, was isolated from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The predicted 122-residue protein consists of a central core of seven repeating TTTTVAP motifs flanked by hydrophobic N- and C-terminal domains. This structure is similar to that of mucins that coat the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Northern blot analysis indicated that the gene is expressed exclusively in the midgut of adult mosquitoes. A length polymorphism and in situ hybridization were used to genetically and cytogenetically map AgMuc1 to division 7A of the right arm of the second chromosome. The subcellular localization of the encoded protein in tissue culture cells was examined by using a baculovirus vector to express AgMuc1 protein tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results indicated that this protein is found at the cell surface and that both hydrophobic domains are required for cell surface targeting. We propose that AgMuc1 is an abundant mucin-like protein that lines the surface of the midgut microvilli, potentially protecting the intestinal epithelium from the proteinase-rich environment of the gut lumen. An intriguing possibility is that, as an abundant surface protein, AgMuc1 may also interact with the malaria parasite during its invasion of the mosquito midgut. (+info)
Genetic analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein-related gene, gbb, identifies multiple requirements during Drosophila development.
We have isolated mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster gene glass bottom boat (gbb), which encodes a TGF-beta signaling molecule (formerly referred to as 60A) with highest sequence similarity to members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup including vertebrate BMPs 5-8. Genetic analysis of both null and hypomorphic gbb alleles indicates that the gene is required in many developmental processes, including embryonic midgut morphogenesis, patterning of the larval cuticle, fat body morphology, and development and patterning of the imaginal discs. In the embryonic midgut, we show that gbb is required for the formation of the anterior constriction and for maintenance of the homeotic gene Antennapedia in the visceral mesoderm. In addition, we show a requirement for gbb in the anterior and posterior cells of the underlying endoderm and in the formation and extension of the gastric caecae. gbb is required in all the imaginal discs for proper disc growth and for specification of veins in the wing and of macrochaete in the notum. Significantly, some of these tissues have been shown to also require the Drosophila BMP2/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp), while others do not. These results indicate that signaling by both gbb and dpp may contribute to the development of some tissues, while in others, gbb may signal independently of dpp. (+info)
A novel insect V-ATPase subunit M9.7 is glycosylated extensively.
Plasma membrane V-ATPase isolated from midgut and Malpighian tubules of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, contains a novel prominent 20-kDa polypeptide. Based on N-terminal protein sequencing, we cloned a corresponding cDNA. The deduced hydrophobic protein consisted of 88 amino acids with a molecular mass of only 9.7 kDa. Immunoblots of the recombinant 9.7-kDa polypeptide, using a monoclonal anti- body to the 20-kDa polypeptide, confirmed that the correct cDNA had been cloned. The 20-kDa polypeptide is glycosylated, as deduced from lectin staining. Treatment with N-glycosidase A resulted in the appearance of two additional protein bands of 16 and 10 kDa which both were immunoreactive to the 20-kDa polypeptide-specific monoclonal antibody. Thus, extensive N-glycosylation of the novel Vo subunit M9.7 accounts for half of its molecular mass observed in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. M9.7 exhibits some similarities to the yeast protein Vma21p which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for the assembly of the Vo complex. However, as deduced from immunoblots as well as from activities of the V-ATPase and endoplasmic reticulum marker enzymes in different membrane preparations, M9.7 is, in contrast to the yeast polypeptide, a constitutive subunit of the mature plasma membrane V-ATPase of M. sexta. (+info)
Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of aminopeptidase N in the host insect leading to its evolutionary success.
Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein, Cry1Aa toxin, binds to a specific receptor in insect midguts and has insecticidal activity. Therefore, the structure of the receptor molecule is probably a key factor in determining the binding affinity of the toxin and insect susceptibility. The cDNA fragment (PX frg1) encoding the Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of an aminopeptidase N (APN) or an APN family protein from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella midgut was cloned and sequenced. A comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence of PX frg1 and other insect APN sequences shows that Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of APN family protein. In this paper, we propose a model to explain the mechanism that causes B. thuringiensis evolutionary success and differing insect susceptibility to Cry1Aa toxin. (+info)
bloated tubules (blot) encodes a Drosophila member of the neurotransmitter transporter family required for organisation of the apical cytocortex.
We have identified a novel member of the vertebrate sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporter family from Drosophila melanogaster. This gene, named bloated tubules (blot), shows significant sequence similarity to a subgroup of vertebrate orphan transporters. blot transcripts are maternally supplied and during embryogenesis exhibit a complex and dynamic pattern in a subset of ectodermally derived epithelia, notably in the Malpighian tubules, and in the nervous system. Animals mutant for this gene are larval lethals, in which the Malpighian tubule cells are distended with an enlarged and disorganised apical surface. Embryos lacking the maternal component of blot expression die during early stages of development. They show an inability to form actin filaments in the apical cortex, resulting in impaired syncytial nuclear divisions, severe defects in the organisation of the cortical cytoskeleton, and a failure to cellularise. For the first time, a neurotransmitter transporter-like protein has been implicated in a function outside the nervous system. The isolation of blot thus provides the basis for an analysis of the relationship between the function of this putative transporter and epithelial morphogenesis. (+info)
Fluid secretion by isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster Meig.: effects of organic anions, quinacrine and a diuretic factor found in the secreted fluid.
Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH, 0.2 and 1 mmol l(-)(1)) had no effect on the basal fluid secretion rate (FSR) of isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. and did not affect stimulation of the FSR induced by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). Phenol Red (phenolsulphonphthalein, PSP; 0.5 and 1 mmol l(-)(1)) slowed the FSR and abolished stimulation of the FSR by cAMP. Diodrast (1 mmol l(-)(1)) slightly, but significantly, reduced the FSR and greatly reduced the stimulation of the FSR normally provoked by cAMP and by the 3',5'-monophosphates of guanosine (cGMP), inosine (cIMP) and uridine (cUMP). However, stimulation of the FSR by the 3', 5'-monophosphate of cytidine (cCMP) was little affected by diodrast. Probenecid (0.2 or 1 mmol l(-)(1)) consistently stimulated the FSR, on average by approximately 25 %, but did not markedly inhibit the subsequent stimulation of the FSR by cAMP, cGMP or cIMP. However, the FSR of tubules stimulated by cGMP was temporarily lowered by probenecid. Quinacrine (0.1 mmol l(-)(1)) slowed basal FSR by an average of approximately 30 %, but subsequent stimulation of the FSR by cAMP was not noticeably affected. Both 0.1 mmol l(-)(1) cAMP and 1 mmol l(-)(1) probenecid stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in extracts of Malpighian tubules, but cIMP, cGMP, cUMP and diodrast were without effect in this regard. Uptake of radioactivity from a solution containing 500 nmol l(-)(1) [(3)H]cAMP and 9.5 micromol l(-)(1) cAMP was reduced by more than 90 % by 1 mmol l(-)(1) PSP, by approximately 40 % by 0.2 mmol l(-)(1) probenecid, by 36 % by 1 mmol l(-)(1) diodrast and by 30 % by 1 mmol l(-)(1) PAH. Neither 0.01 mmol l(-)(1) ouabain nor 0.1 mmol l(-)(1) quinacrine affected the uptake of [(3)H]cAMP by the Malpighian tubules. Fluid secreted by isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster contains a factor that stimulated the FSR on average by approximately 50 %. The presence in the secreted fluid of cGMP at a concentration of 8.3 micromol l(-)(1) did not explain the stimulatory effect on FSR. These results support the existence of a carrier-mediated uptake of cyclic nucleotides into the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster, possibly involving a multispecific transporter. (+info)