Agrococcus citreus sp. nov., isolated from a medieval wall painting of the chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria).
A bacterial strain, D-1/1aT, isolated from a medieval wall painting of the chapel of Herberstein (Styria, Austria) was characterized by a polyphasic approach. Strain D-1/1aT shared 98.1% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Agrococcus jenensis. The chemotaxonomic characteristics including polar lipid pattern, whole cell sugars, quinone system, polyamine pattern, cell wall composition and fatty acid profile were in good agreement with those of Agrococcus jenensis. The G+C content of the DNA was determined to be 74 mol%. The value of 47% DNA reassociation obtained after DNA-DNA hybridization between DNA of Agrococcus jenensis and strain D-1/1aT as well as differences in the amino acid composition of the peptidoglycan and in physiological characteristics demonstrate that the isolate represents a new species of the genus Agrococcus. The name Agrococcus citreus sp. nov. is proposed for the new species harbouring isolate D-1/1aT. The type strain is DSM 12453T. (+info)
Michelangelo: art, anatomy, and the kidney.
Michelangelo (1475-1564) had a life-long interest in anatomy that began with his participation in public dissections in his early teens, when he joined the court of Lorenzo de' Medici and was exposed to its physician-philosopher members. By the age of 18, he began to perform his own dissections. His early anatomic interests were revived later in life when he aspired to publish a book on anatomy for artists and to collaborate in the illustration of a medical anatomy text that was being prepared by the Paduan anatomist Realdo Colombo (1516-1559). His relationship with Colombo likely began when Colombo diagnosed and treated him for nephrolithiasis in 1549. He seems to have developed gouty arthritis in 1555, making the possibility of uric acid stones a distinct probability. Recurrent urinary stones until the end of his life are well documented in his correspondence, and available documents imply that he may have suffered from nephrolithiasis earlier in life. His terminal illness with symptoms of fluid overload suggests that he may have sustained obstructive nephropathy. That this may account for his interest in kidney function is evident in his poetry and drawings. Most impressive in this regard is the mantle of the Creator in his painting of the Separation of Land and Water in the Sistine Ceiling, which is in the shape of a bisected right kidney. His use of the renal outline in a scene representing the separation of solids (Land) from liquid (Water) suggests that Michelangelo was likely familiar with the anatomy and function of the kidney as it was understood at the time. (+info)
Benign familial hypermobility syndrome and Trendelenburg sign in a painting "The Three Graces" by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640).
Clinical features suggestive of hypermobility syndrome and a positive Trendelenburg sign are described in a painting "The Three Graces" (1638-1640) by Peter Paul Rubens, Prado, Madrid. The most obvious findings are scoliosis, positive Trendelenburg sign, and hyperextension of the metacarpal joints, hyperlordosis, and flat feet. The sitters, presumably Helene Fourment (second wife of Rubens) and her sisters, support the hereditary familial aspect of hypermobility. Manifest hypermobility of the hand has also been found in two other ancient paintings: "Saint Cyriaque" in the Heller Retable by Mathias Grunewald (1450-1528), Frankfurt, and "The wounded man" by Gaspare Traversi, Venice (1732-1769). The finding of signs of hypermobility in ancient paintings shows that artists who are keen observers of nature could describe, or at least record, this condition long before doctors did. The art of the past can be a useful tool in the field of paleopathology. (+info)
Detection of indigenous Halobacillus populations in damaged ancient wall paintings and building materials: molecular monitoring and cultivation.
Several moderately halophilic gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria have been isolated by conventional enrichment cultures from damaged medieval wall paintings and building materials. Enrichment and isolation were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. 16S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the bacteria are most closely related to Halobacillus litoralis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments identified the isolates as a population of hitherto unknown Halobacillus species. (+info)
Georgenia muralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a medieval wall painting.
Two bacterial strains, designated 1A-C(T) and 3A-1, were studied and, using these results and previously published data, taxonomically classified. Cells of the strains exhibited a rod-coccus cycle. The peptidoglycan determined for 1A-C(T) was of type A4alpha with lysine as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid and an interpeptide bridge of L-Lys <-- L-Glu. The menaquinone systems of the two strains contained MK-8(H4) (82-94%) and MK-7(H4) (3-11%). The polar lipid profiles consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified glycolipid. The fatty acid profiles contained predominantly ai-C15:0 and significant amounts of i-C14:0 and i-C15:1 fatty acids. Genomic fingerprints clearly distinguished strains 1A-C(T) and 3A-1 from each other. DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains (92%) demonstrated that they are members of a single species. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences of strains IA-C(T) and 3A-1, which were almost identical (99.6% sequence similarity), and comparison with corresponding sequences demonstrated that they represent a novel lineage within the suborder Micrococcineae, most closely related to species of the genera Beutenbergia, Bogoriella and Cellulomonas (94.7-95.7% sequence similarity). The results demonstrate that the two strains are members of a single new genus and a single novel species. Thus, the name Georgenia muralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 1A-C(T) (= DSM 14418T = CCM 4963T). Another strain of the species is strain 3A-1 (= DSM 14419 = CCM 4964). (+info)
Agrococcus baldri sp. nov., isolated from the air in the 'Virgilkapelle' in Vienna.
Five coccoid, Gram-positive strains were isolated from the air of the 'Virgilkapelle' in Vienna. A representative of these five strains, V-108T, shared 99.0 and 98.4% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, with Agrococcus jenensis DSM 9580 and Agrococcus citreus DSM 12453T. Colonies of the five strains were white when grown in the dark and turned yellow in the light. The strains displayed highly similar biochemical and physiological characteristics and showed only small differences in their protein patterns obtained after SDS-PAGE. Based on Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra, the five strains were grouped together and separated from the other members of the genus, A. jenensis and A. citreus. Chemotaxonomic characteristics analysed from selected members of the five isolates, including polar lipids, quinone systems, polyamine patterns, cell wall composition and fatty acid profiles, were in good agreement with those of the two species of the genus Agrococcus described to date. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be within the narrow range of 73.8-74.9 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization with A. citreus DSM 12453T and A. jenensis DSM 9580T, as well as differences in biochemical/physiological characteristics, peptidoglycan composition, fatty acids, polar lipid profiles and FT-IR spectra, demonstrated that the five isolates represent a novel species of the genus Agrococcus. The name Agrococcus baldri sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species, of which strain V-108T (= DSM 14215T = CCM 4953T) is the type strain. (+info)
Brachybacterium fresconis sp. nov. and Brachybacterium sacelli sp. nov., isolated from deteriorated parts of a medieval wall painting of the chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria).
From two samples of microbial biofilms, damaging the mural paintings at the Saint-Catherine chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria), four and nine coryneform bacteria were isolated, respectively. A polyphasic taxonomic study of these isolates, including morphological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characterization, REP-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA base ratio and DNA-DNA hybridizations, allocated them to the genus Brachybacterium. The isolates of the two samples both represent new species, for which the names Brachybacterium fresconis sp. nov. and Brachybacterium sacelli sp. nov. are proposed. The respective type strains are LMG 20336T (= DSM 14564T) and LMG 20345T (= DSM 14566T). (+info)
Halomonas muralis sp. nov., isolated from microbial biofilms colonizing the walls and murals of the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria).
A group of seven halophilic strains (optimal growth at 2.5-10.0% NaCl) was isolated from samples of a wall and a mural painting, both heavily contaminated by microbial growth, inside the Saint-Catherine chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria). The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study that included DNA-DNA relatedness studies, DNA base-ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, fatty acid analysis and phenotypic and biochemical characterization. The data obtained indicate that the strains belong to the genus Halomonas and represent a novel species, for which the name Halomonas muralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain LMG 20969(T) ( = DSM 14789(T)). (+info)