Optimization of magnesium therapy after severe diffuse axonal brain injury in rats.
A number of studies have demonstrated that magnesium salts given after traumatic brain injury improve subsequent neurologic outcome. However, given that these earlier studies have used a number of different salts, dosages, and routes of administration, follow-up studies of the neuroprotective properties of magnesium are complicated, with comparisons to the earlier literature virtually impossible. The present study has therefore characterized the dose-response characteristics of the most commonly used sulfate and chloride salts of magnesium in a severe model of diffuse traumatic axonal injury in rats. Both magnesium salts improved neurologic outcome in rats when administered as a bolus at 30 min after injury. The i.v. and i.m. optima of each salt was 250 micromol/kg and 750 micromol/kg, respectively. The identical concentrations required for improved neurologic outcome suggest that improvement in outcome was dependent on the magnesium cation and not the associated anion. Subsequent magnetic resonance studies demonstrated that the administered magnesium penetrated the blood-brain barrier after injury and resulted in an increased brain intracellular free magnesium concentration and associated bioenergetic state as reflected in the cytosolic phosphorylation potential. Both of these metabolic parameters positively correlated with resultant neurologic outcome measured daily in the same animals immediately before the magnetic resonance determinations. (+info)
Inhibition of myosin ATPase by metal fluoride complexes.
Magnesium (Mg2+) is the physiological divalent cation stabilizing nucleotide or nucleotide analog in the active site of myosin subfragment 1 (S1). In the presence of fluoride, Mg2+ and MgADP form a complex that traps the active site of S1 and inhibits myosin ATPase. The ATPase inactivation rate of the magnesium trapped S1 is comparable but smaller than the other known gamma-phosphate analogs at 1.2 M-1 s-1 with 1 mM MgCl2. The observed molar ratio of Mg/S1 in this complex of 1.58 suggests that magnesium occupies the gamma-phosphate position in the ATP binding site of S1 (S1-MgADP-MgFx). The stability of S1-MgADP-MgFx at 4 degrees C was studied by EDTA chase experiments but decomposition was not observed. However, removal of excess fluoride causes full recovery of the K+-EDTA ATPase activity indicating that free fluoride is necessary for maintaining a stable trap and suggesting that the magnesium fluoride complex is bonded to the bridging oxygen of beta-phosphate more loosely than the other known phosphate analogs. The structure of S1 in S1-MgADP-MgFx was studied with near ultraviolet circular dichroism, total tryptophan fluorescence, and tryptophan residue 510 quenching measurements. These data suggest that S1-MgADP-MgFx resembles the M**.ADP.Pi steady-state intermediate of myosin ATPase. Gallium fluoride was found to compete with MgFx for the gamma-phosphate site in S1-MgADP-MgFx. The ionic radius and coordination geometry of magnesium, gallium and other known gamma-phosphate analogs were compared and identified as important in determining which myosin ATPase intermediate the analog mimics. (+info)
Origin of graphitic carbon and pentlandite in matrix olivines in the Allende meteorite.
Matrix olivines in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite are believed to have formed by condensation processes in the primitive solar nebula. However, transmission electron microscope observations of numerous matrix olivines show that they contain abundant, previously unrecognized, nanometer-sized inclusions of pentlandite and poorly graphitized carbon. Neither of these phases would have been stable at the high-temperature conditions required to condense iron-rich olivine in the solar nebula. The presence of these inclusions is consistent with formation of the olivines by parent body processes that involved overgrowth of fine-grained organic materials and sulfides in the precursor matrix materials. (+info)
Reciprocal effects of substitutions at the subunit interfaces in hexameric pyrophosphatase of Escherichia coli. Dimeric and monomeric forms of the enzyme.
A homohexameric molecule of Escherichia coli pyrophosphatase is arranged as a dimer of trimers, with an active site present in each of its six monomers. Earlier we reported that substitution of His(136) and His(140) in the intertrimeric subunit interface splits the molecule into active trimers (Velichko, I. S., Mikalahti, K., Kasho, V. N., Dudarenkov, V. Y., Hyytia, T., Goldman, A., Cooperman, B. S., Lahti, R., and Baykov, A. A. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 734-740). Here we demonstrate that additional substitutions of Tyr(77) and Gln(80) in the intratrimeric interface give rise to moderately active dimers or virtually inactive monomers, depending on pH, temperature, and Mg(2+) concentration. Successive dissociation of the hexamer into trimers, dimers, and monomers progressively decreases the catalytic efficiency (by 10(6)-fold in total), and conversion of a trimer into dimer decreases the affinity of one of the essential Mg(2+)-binding sites/monomer. Disruptive substitutions predominantly in the intratrimeric interface stabilize the intertrimeric interface and vice versa, suggesting that the optimal intratrimeric interaction is not compatible with the optimal intertrimeric interaction. Because of the resulting "conformational strain," hexameric wild-type structure appears to be preformed to bind substrate. A hexameric triple variant substituted at Tyr(77), Gln(80), and His(136) exhibits positive cooperativity in catalysis, consistent with this model. (+info)
Potassium-magnesium citrate versus potassium chloride in thiazide-induced hypokalemia.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the value of potassium-magnesium citrate (KMgCit) with potassium chloride in overcoming thiazide-induced hypokalemia. METHODS: Sixty normal subjects first took hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 50 mg/day). After three weeks of treatment (or earlier if hypokalemia developed), they were randomized to take KMgCit (42 mEq K, 21 mEq Mg, and 63 mEq citrate/day) or potassium chloride (42 mEq/day) for three weeks while continuing on HCTZ. RESULTS: KMgCit significantly increased the serum potassium concentration from 3.42 +/- 0.30 mEq/L on HCTZ alone to about 3.8 mEq/L (P < 0.001). Potassium chloride produced a similar increase in serum potassium concentration from 3.45 +/- 0.44 mEq/L to about 3.8 mEq/L (P < 0. 001). KMgCit significantly increased the serum magnesium concentration by 0.11 to 0.12 mEq/L (P < 0.01), whereas potassium chloride produced a marginal decline or no significant change. KMgCit was less effective than potassium chloride in correcting HCTZ-induced hypochloridemia and hyperbicarbonatemia. KMgCit, but not potassium chloride, significantly increased urinary pH (by about 0.6 unit), citrate (by about 260 mg/day), and urinary magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: KMgCit is equally effective as potassium chloride in correcting thiazide-induced hypokalemia. In addition, KMgCit, but not potassium chloride, produces a small but significant increase in serum magnesium concentration by delivering a magnesium load, and it confers alkalinizing and citraturic actions. (+info)
Mechanism of Ca2+-induced inhibition of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase.
The causes of inhibition of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) by Ca2+ were investigated. The interactions of several mutant pyrophosphatases with Ca2+ in the absence of substrate were analyzed by equilibrium dialysis. The kinetics of Ca2+ inhibition of hydrolysis of the substrates MgPPi and LaPPi by the native PPase and three mutant enzymes (Asp-42-Asn, Ala, and Glu) were studied. X-Ray data on E. coli PPase complexed with Ca2+ or CaPPi solved at atomic resolution were analyzed. It was shown that, in the course of the catalytic reaction, Ca2+ replaces Mg2+ at the M2 site, which shows higher affinity for Ca2+ than for Mg2+. Different properties of these cations account for active site deformation. Our findings indicate that the filling of the M2 site with Ca2+ is sufficient for PPase inhibition. This fact proves that Ca2+ is incapable of properly activating the H2O molecule for nucleophilic attack on PPi. It was also demonstrated that Ca2+, as a constituent of the non-hydrolyzable substrate analog CaPPi, competes with MgPPi at the M3 binding site. As a result, Ca2+ is a powerful inhibitor of all known PPases. Other possible reasons for the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ on the enzyme activity are also considered. (+info)
Encrusted pyelitis of native kidneys.
This study reports the first four cases of encrusted pyelitis involving native kidneys. The clinical features, management, and outcome of these patients were analyzed. Predisposing factors were underlying urologic disease and/or urologic manipulations, debilitating diseases, hospitalization, and prolonged antibiotic therapies. Presenting symptoms were renal failure in three patients with ureteroileal urinary diversion and manifestations of cystitis in one patient. Computed tomography scan of the urinary tract was critical for diagnosis. Presence of struvite was demonstrated by crystalluria and infrared spectrophotometry analysis of the encrusted material. Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary infection was identified in one case. Surgery (one patient) and palliative ureteral diversion (one patient), respectively, led to death and end-stage renal failure. Successful dissolution of encrusted pyelitis was obtained in two patients treated with intravenous vancomycin and local acidification of the renal collecting system. Clinical observation shows that encrusted pyelitis is a threatening disorder that destroys the native kidneys and may lead to end-stage renal failure. Successful treatment of the disease by chemolysis and antibiotics depends on correct and early diagnosis. Diagnosis required recognition of the predisposing factors, computed tomography imaging of the urinary tract, crystalluria, and identification of urea-splitting bacteria with prolonged culture on selective medium. (+info)
Influence of salts on virus adsorption to microporous filters.
We investigated the direct and indirect effects of mono-, di-, and trivalent salts (NaCl, MgCl(2), and AlCl(3)) on the adsorption of several viruses (MS2, PRD-1, phiX174, and poliovirus 1) to microporous filters at different pH values. The filters studied included Millipore HA (nitrocellulose), Filterite (fiberglass), Whatman (cellulose), and 1MDS (charged-modified fiber) filters. Each of these filters except the Whatman cellulose filters has been used in virus removal and recovery procedures. The direct effects of added salts were considered to be the effects associated with the presence of the soluble salts. The indirect effects of the added salts were considered to be (i) changes in the pH values of solutions and (ii) the formation of insoluble precipitates that could adsorb viruses and be removed by filtration. When direct effects alone were considered, the salts used in this study promoted virus adsorption, interfered with virus adsorption, or had little or no effect on virus adsorption, depending on the filter, the virus, and the salt. Although we were able to confirm previous reports that the addition of aluminum chloride to water enhances virus adsorption to microporous filters, we found that the enhanced adsorption was associated with indirect effects rather than direct effects. The increase in viral adsorption observed when aluminum chloride was added to water was related to the decrease in the pH of the water. Similar results could be obtained by adding HCl. The increased adsorption of viruses in water at pH 7 following addition of aluminum chloride was probably due to flocculation of aluminum, since removal of flocs by filtration greatly reduced the enhancement observed. The only direct effect of aluminum chloride on virus adsorption that we observed was interference with adsorption to microporous filters. Under conditions under which hydrophobic interactions were minimal, aluminum chloride interfered with virus adsorption to Millipore, Filterite, and 1MDS filters. In most cases, less than 10% of the viruses adsorbed to filters in the presence of a multivalent salt and a compound that interfered with hydrophobic interactions (0.1% Tween 80 or 4 M urea). (+info)