Primary hypertrophic tuberculosis of the pyloroduodenal area: report of 2 cases.
Tuberculosis of the stomach and duodenum is rare in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Primary involvement is even rarer. Two cases of primary tuberculosis of the localised to the pyloro-duodenal area are presented. The most common symptoms are non-specific leading to a difficulty in establishing a pre-operative diagnosis. A high degree of suspicion is therefore required for its diagnosis and to differentiate it from more frequent causes of gastric outlet obstruction such as chronic peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. The treatment of gastric tuberculosis is primarily medical with anti-tuberculous drug therapy. The role of surgery lies in the cases with obstruction following hypertrophic tuberculosis. The surgery done is usually a gastroenterostomy. With the relative rate of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis increasing, tuberculosis of the pyloro-duodenal area should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction. (+info)
Duplication cyst of the pylorus--a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn.
Duplication cysts of the pylorus are the rarest of alimentary tract duplications with very few reported cases. We present such a cyst in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. We have also reviewed the literature and outlined the theories of origin, modes of presentation, diagnosis and the surgical procedures. Even though several modes of surgery have been described, it is best to individualize the surgical option in each case. The results depend on the nature and site of duplication, complications and the associated anomalies. (+info)
Potential uses of intravenous proton pump inhibitors to control gastric acid secretion.
Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective agents for suppressing gastric acidity and are the preferred therapy for many acid-related conditions. While proton pump inhibitors have been accessible in intravenous formulations in several European countries, they have been available only as oral drugs in the United States. In the near future, the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole is likely to become available in an intravenous formulation for American patients. Potential uses for intravenous proton pump inhibitors include treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and peptic ulcers complicated by bleeding or gastric outlet obstruction, as well as prevention of stress ulcers and acid-induced lung injury. These intravenous proton pump inhibitors are also likely to be beneficial to patients undergoing long-term maintenance with oral proton pump inhibitors who cannot take oral therapy for a period of time. Intravenous pantoprazole is especially distinguished in its lack of clinically relevant drug interactions, and it requires no dosage adjustment for patients with renal insufficiency or with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction. Both omeprazole and pantoprazole are well tolerated in both oral and intravenous forms. Although further studies are needed to define their roles clearly, the availability of intravenous formulations of proton pump inhibitors will certainly assist with the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders. (+info)
Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group.
BACKGROUND: Each year, clinical upper gastrointestinal events occur in 2 to 4 percent of patients who are taking nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We assessed whether rofecoxib, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, would be associated with a lower incidence of clinically important upper gastrointestinal events than is the nonselective NSAID naproxen among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: We randomly assigned 8076 patients who were at least 50 years of age (or at least 40 years of age and receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy) and who had rheumatoid arthritis to receive either 50 mg of rofecoxib daily or 500 mg of naproxen twice daily. The primary end point was confirmed clinical upper gastrointestinal events (gastroduodenal perforation or obstruction, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcers). RESULTS: Rofecoxib and naproxen had similar efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis. During a median follow-up of 9.0 months, 2.1 confirmed gastrointestinal events per 100 patient-years occurred with rofecoxib, as compared with 4.5 per 100 patient-years with naproxen (relative risk, 0.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.3 to 0.6; P<0.001). The respective rates of complicated confirmed events (perforation, obstruction, and severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding) were 0.6 per 100 patient-years and 1.4 per 100 patient-years (relative risk, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.8; P=0.005). The incidence of myocardial infarction was lower among patients in the naproxen group than among those in the rofecoxib group (0.1 percent vs. 0.4 percent; relative risk, 0.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.1 to 0.7); the overall mortality rate and the rate of death from cardiovascular causes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, treatment with rofecoxib, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, is associated with significantly fewer clinically important upper gastrointestinal events than treatment with naproxen, a nonselective inhibitor. (+info)
Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser.
BACKGROUND: Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG) which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula. CONCLUSION: We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy. (+info)
Duodenal stents for malignant duodenal strictures.
Duodenal obstruction may be caused by inoperable malignant disease. Symptoms of nausea and vomiting have been traditionally palliated by surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of the endoscopic placement of metal self expanding duodenal stents for the palliation of malignant duodenal obstruction. Four patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction are described. One patient had a history of oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and presented with further dysphagia. At endoscopy the recurrent oesophageal tumour and an adenocarcinoma involving the pylorus were both stented. In the other three patients there was a previous history of colonic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma respectively. All four patients were successfully stented with good palliation of their symptoms. Duodenal Wallstents are a useful alternative to surgery in patients with inoperable malignant duodenal obstruction or those who are unfit for surgery. (+info)
Review article: Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric outlet obstruction - prevalence of the infection and role of antimicrobial treatment.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease complicated by gastric outlet obstruction seems to be, overall, lower than that reported in non-complicated ulcer disease, with a mean value of 69%. However, H. pylori infection rates in various studies range from 33% to 91%, suggesting that differences in variables, such as the number and type of diagnostic methods used or the frequency of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug intake, may be responsible for the low prevalence reported in some studies. The resolution of gastric outlet obstruction after the eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated by several studies. It seems that the beneficial effect of H. pylori eradication on gastric outlet obstruction is observed early, just a few weeks after the administration of antimicrobial treatment. Furthermore, this favourable effect seems to remain during long-term follow-up. Nevertheless, gastric outlet obstruction does not always resolve after H. pylori eradication treatment and an explanation for the failures is not completely clear, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug intake perhaps playing a major role in these cases. Treatment should start pharmacologically with the eradication of H. pylori even when stenosis is considered to be fibrotic, or when there is some gastric stasis. In summary, H. pylori eradication therapy should be considered as the first step in the treatment of duodenal or pyloric H. pylori-positive stenosis, whereas dilation or surgery should be reserved for patients who do not respond to such medical therapy. (+info)
Ectopic pancreas with gastric outlet obstruction: report of two cases and literature review.
Ectopic pancreas is a rare entity and is usually an incidental finding in clinical practice. Most patients with an ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, and if present, symptoms are non-specific according to the site of the lesion and different complications encountered. The most-common site is the stomach, accounting for 25%-38.2% of all patients. An asymptomatic ectopic pancreas is usually of no clinical importance, and there is no surgical indication in such a situation. However if there are complications caused by an ectopic pancreas, a variety of actions becomes necessary. We report 2 cases of ectopic pancreas with gastric outlet obstruction. The first case was a 41-year-old man who suffered from epigastric fullness and dyspepsia for 3 years. Endoscopic examination revealed a submucosal tumor measuring 2.5 cm in diameter in the prepyloric area. The second case was a 53-year-old man, who initially underwent a craniotomy to remove a pituitary adenoma, and laparotomy and duodenorrhaphy due to a perforated peptic ulcer. The postoperative course was not uneventful, and an upper gastrointestinal series showed a 2-cm intramural mass with a mucosal ulcer at the distal antrum. Both cases had symptoms and signs of gastric outlet obstruction, and both cases accepted subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth II anastomosis. A review of the literature revealed few cases of ectopic pancreas with gastric outlet obstruction. An ectopic pancreas must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction. (+info)