Constipation and LUTS - how do they affect each other?
CONTEXT: Urinary bladder and rectum share a common embryological origin. Their autonomic and somatic innervations have close similarities. Moreover, the close proximity of these two organ systems could suggest that dysfunction in one may influence, also mechanically, the function of the other. Therefore, it is not surprising that defecation problems and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) occur together, as reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between constipation and LUTS focusing on what is evidence-based. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database in February 2010 to retrieve English language studies (from 1997 to 2009) and the 2005, 2006 and 2007 abstract volumes of the European Association of Urology (EAU), American Urological Association (AUA) and International Continence Society (ICS). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We present the findings according to the studied population in four groups: (a) children, (b) middle-aged women, (c) elderly and (d) neuropathic patients. Most published studies that correlated rectal and bladder dysfunction were carried out in children or in young women. On the other hand, there are few studies regarding the association between constipation and LUTS in the elderly and in neuropathic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies in children documented that constipation is linked to urinary tract problems, including infections, enuresis, vesicoureteral reflux and upper renal tract dilatation. The underlying pathophysiology of these findings has not yet been clearly defined. Studies in middle-aged women also support a high prevalence of constipation among patients suffering from urinary tract dysfunction. Furthermore, an association between constipation and urinary incontinence, as well as between constipation and pelvic organ prolapse, has been suggested. The only prospective study in constipated elderly with concomitant LUTS demonstrates that the medical relief of constipation also significantly improves LUTS. Finally, the available data on neuropathic patients suggest that stool impaction in the rectum may mechanically impede bladder emptying. However, most of the studies only include a small number of patients, are not prospective and are uncontrolled. Therefore, there is a need for large-scale, controlled studies to further improve evidence and to provide a valid recommendation for all groups, especially for the elderly and neuropathic patients. (+info)
Urodynamics in women from menopause to oldest age: what motive? What diagnosis?
PURPOSE: To analyze age-associated changes as a motive for urodynamics and urodynamic diagnosis in community-dwelling menopausal women and to discuss the role of menopause and ageing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and forty nine consecutive menopausal women referred for urodynamic evaluation of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms, met the inclusion criteria and were stratified into 3 age groups: 55-64 years (A), 65-74 years (B), and 75-93 years (C). Comprehensive assessment included previous medical history and clinical examination. Studied items were motive for urodynamics, results of uroflows (free flow and intubated flow) and cystometry, urethral pressure profilometry, and final urodynamic diagnosis. RESULTS: The main motive was incontinence (66.3%) with significant increase of mixed incontinence in group C (p = 0.028). Detrusor function significantly deteriorated in the oldest group, mainly in absence of neurological disease (overactivity p = 0.019; impaired contractility p = 0.028). In the entire population, underactivity predominated in group C (p = 0.0024). A progressive decrease of maximum urethral closure pressure occurred with ageing. In subjects with no detrusor overactivity there was a decrease with age of detrusor pressure at opening and at maximum flow, and of maximum flow while post void residual increased only in the C group. CONCLUSION: In our population of community-dwelling menopausal women, incontinence was the main motive for urodynamics increasing with ageing. A brisk change in LUT function of women older than 75 years underlined deterioration in bladder function with a high incidence of detrusor hyperactivity with or without impaired contractility while change in urethral function was progressive. Effect of ageing appears to be predominant compared to menopause. (+info)
Moderating perceptions of bother reports by individuals experiencing lower urinary tract symptoms.