Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists.
1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent. (+info)
Acute haemodynamic and proteinuric effects of prednisolone in patients with a nephrotic syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Administration of prednisolone causes an abrupt rise in proteinuria in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: To clarify the mechanisms responsible for this increase in proteinuria we have performed a placebo controlled study in 26 patients with a nephrotic syndrome. Systemic and renal haemodynamics and urinary protein excretion were measured after prednisolone and after placebo. RESULTS: After i.v. administration of 125-150 mg prednisolone total proteinuria increased from 6.66+/-4.42 to 9.37+/-6.07 mg/min (P<0.001). By analysing the excretion of proteins with different charge and weight (albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgG4 and beta2-microglobulin) it became apparent that the increase of proteinuria was the result of a change in size selectivity rather than a change in glomerular charge selectivity or tubular protein reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate rose from 83+/-34 ml to 95+/-43 ml/min (P<0.001) after 5 h, whereas effective renal plasma flow and endogenous creatinine clearance remained unchanged. As a result filtration fraction was increased, compatible with an increased glomerular pressure, which probably contributes to the size selectivity changes. Since corticosteroids affect both the renin-angiotensin system and renal prostaglandins, we have evaluated the effects of prednisolone on proteinuria after pretreatment with 3 months of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or after 2 weeks of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin. Neither drug had any effect on prednisolone-induced increases of proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone increases proteinuria by changing the size selective barrier of the glomerular capillary. Neither the renin-angiotensin axis nor prostaglandins seem to be involved in these effects of prednisolone on proteinuria. (+info)
Cough and angiotensin II receptor antagonists: cause or confounding?
AIMS: Cough is one of the most frequent side effects associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) but is not thought to be associated with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARA). This study compares reports of cough with losartan and three ACEIs used in general practice. METHODS: Studies have been conducted for losartan, and three ACEIs enalapril, lisinopril and perindopril, using the technique of Prescription-Event Monitoring. Patients were identified using dispensed prescription data. Questionnaires were sent to patients' general practitioners 6 months after the date of first prescription. Cases of cough within the first 60 days of treatment with losartan resulting in withdrawal of the drug were followed up with additional questionnaires. Incidence rates for reports of cough were calculated. In order to reduce the impact of carry-over effects, rate ratios were calculated for first reports of cough between days 8 and 60 using losartan as the index drug. RESULTS: The cohort for each drug exceeded 9000 patients. Age and sex distributions and indications for prescribing the four drugs were similar. Cough was the most frequent reason for discontinuation of losartan and the most frequently reported event in the first month of treatment with this drug. When reports of cough between days 1-7 were excluded, rates of cough were significantly higher for the three ACEIs when compared with losartan (rate ratios 1.5, 4.8 and 5.7, all P<0.03). 101 patients had discontinued losartan due to cough. 91% of these had previously been prescribed an ACEI and 86% had previously experienced ACEI cough. CONCLUSIONS: Carry-over accounted for the observed excess of reports of cough with losartan. Rates of cough between days 8 and 60 were significantly higher for the three ACEIs compared with losartan. Confounding factors associated with comparative observational cohort studies are discussed. (+info)
Mediation of humoral catecholamine secretion by the renin-angiotensin system in hypotensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
The individual contributions of, and potential interactions between, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the humoral adrenergic stress response to blood pressure regulation were examined in rainbow trout. Intravenous injection of the smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine (10 mg/kg), elicited a transient decrease in dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA) and systemic vascular resistance (RS), and significant increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and catecholamine concentrations. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors before papaverine treatment prevented PDA and RS recovery, had no effect on the increase in plasma catecholamines, and resulted in greater plasma Ang II concentrations. Administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril (10(-4) mol/kg), before papaverine treatment attenuated the increases in the plasma concentrations of Ang II, adrenaline, and noradrenaline by 90, 79, and 40%, respectively and also prevented PDA and RS recovery. By itself, lisinopril treatment caused a gradual and sustained decrease in PDA and RS, and reductions in basal plasma Ang II and adrenaline concentrations. Bolus injection of a catecholamine cocktail (4 nmol/kg noradrenaline plus 40 nmol/kg adrenaline) in the lisinopril+papaverine-treated trout, to supplement their circulating catecholamine concentrations and mimic those observed in fish treated only with papaverine, resulted in a temporary recovery in PDA and RS. These results indicate that the RAS and the acute humoral adrenergic response are both recruited during an acute hypotensive stress, and have important roles in the compensatory response to hypotension in rainbow trout. However, whereas the contribution of the RAS to PDA recovery is largely indirect and relies on an Ang II-mediated secretion of catecholamines, the contribution from the adrenergic system is direct and relies at least in part on plasma catecholamines. (+info)
Effects of nisoldipine and lisinopril on left ventricular mass and function in diabetic nephropathy.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of the calcium channel blocker, nisoldipine, and the ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, on left ventricular mass (LVM) and systolic function in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode echocardiography was performed in 50 hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy enrolled in a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, parallel study of antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine CC (20-40 mg/day) or lisinopril (10-20 mg/day). Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure was measured with the Takeda TM 2420 device (A & D, Tokyo, Japan) every 3 months. Three patients dropped out and seven patients were excluded due to technical difficulties. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was reduced from 83 to 80 mmHg in the nisoldipine group (P = 0.06) and from 85 to 80 mmHg in the lisinopril group (P = 0.02). The decline in systolic blood pressure was not significant with any of the two treatments, and no difference in reduction of blood pressure was seen between groups. LVM corrected for body surface area (LVMI) was comparable between groups at baseline and increased from 96 +/- 5 to 107 +/- 6 g/m2 (mean +/- SEM; P = 0.007) in the nisoldipine group and from 95 +/- 4 to 103 +/- 5 g/m2 (P = 0.03) in the lisinopril group. The mean difference between the change in LVMI in the two groups was 2.9 (95% CI 6.8 to 12.7) g/m2. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy rose from 18 (95% CI 6-30) to 30% (16-44) during the study period. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after 1 year of treatment, LVMI increased with higher systolic blood pressure level and declining glomerular filtration rate (R2 = 0.25). Fractional shortening was within normal range at baseline, 42 +/- 1 vs. 41 +/- 1% with nisoldipine and lisinopril, respectively, and did not change during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine or lisinopril to bring diastolic blood pressure level within the normal target range does not hinder a rise in LVMI in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. (+info)
Effect of prolonged administration of a urinary kinase inhibitor, ebelactone B on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in rats.
The effect of prolonged administration of a carboxypeptidase Y-like kininase inhibitor, ebelactone B (EB) (2-ethyl-3, 11-dihydroxy-4, 6, 8, 10, 12-pentamethyl-9-oxo-6-tetradecenoic 1, 3-lactone), on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension was tested. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of non-treated 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley strain rats was gradually increased by DOCA-salt treatment from 137+/-2 mmHg (n=11) to 195+/-7 mmHg at 10 weeks of age. With daily oral administration of lisinopril (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), which is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, a major kininase in plasma, the development of hypertension was not suppressed. By contrast, administration of EB (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), completely inhibited the development of hypertension (SBP: 146+/-1 mmHg, n=5, 10 weeks old). The reduced SBP at 10 weeks of age was equal to the SBP before any treatment (142+/-1 mmHg, n=5). Direct determination of mean blood pressure (MBP) in conscious, unrestrained rats confirmed that MBP elevation was completely inhibited by EB. Continuous subcutaneous infusion (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of HOE140, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, restored the elevation of SBP, which was suppressed by EB. The weights of left ventricle of DOCA-salt treated rats 10-weeks-old (0.36+/-0.02 g 100 g body weight(-1), n=11) was significantly reduced by EB (0.27+/-0.01, n=5), as were the sodium levels in serum, cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocyte. These findings suggested that EB is effective in preventing salt-related hypertension presumably by eliminating sodium retention. (+info)
Antiproteinuric therapy while preventing the abnormal protein traffic in proximal tubule abrogates protein- and complement-dependent interstitial inflammation in experimental renal disease.
In proteinuric glomerulopathies, the excess traffic of proteins into the renal tubule is a candidate trigger of interstitial inflammatory and immune events leading to progressive injury, and a key target for the renoprotective action of antiproteinuric drugs. Among proteins trafficked to the proximal tubule, the third component of complement (C3) can be activated locally and contribute to inflammation at sites of protein reabsorption. Experiments were performed in rats with renal mass reduction (RMR, 5/6 nephrectomy) with the following aims: (1) to study Ig (IgG) and complement deposition in proximal tubules, and interstitial macrophage infiltration and MHC class II expression at intervals after surgery by double immunofluorescence analysis; (2) to assess whether lisinopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEi], 25 mg/L in the drinking water, from either day 1 or day 7) limited IgG and C3 accumulation and interstitial inflammation at day 30. In 7-d remnant kidneys, intracellular staining for both IgG and C3 was detectable in proximal tubules in focal areas; C3 was restricted to IgG-positive tubular cells, and there were no interstitial ED-1 macrophage and MHC II-positive cellular infiltrates. In 14-d and 30-d remnant kidneys, proximal tubular IgG and C3 staining was associated with the appearance of interstitial infiltrates that preferentially localized to areas of tubules positive for both proteins. RMR rats given ACEi had no or limited increases in levels of urinary protein excretion, tubular IgG, and C3 reactivity, and interstitial cellular infiltrates in kidneys at 30 d, even when ACEi was started from day 7 after surgery. These findings document that (1) in RMR, IgG and C3 accumulation in proximal tubular cells is followed by leukocyte infiltration and MHC II overexpression in the adjacent interstitium; (2) ACEi while preventing proteinuria limits both tubular accumulation of IgG and C3 and interstitial inflammation. The data suggest that ACE inhibition can be renoprotective by limiting the early abnormal protein traffic in proximal tubule and consequent deleterious effects of excess protein reabsorption, including the accumulation and local activation of complement as well as the induction of chemokines and endothelin genes known to promote interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. (+info)
Lisinopril improves arterial function in hyperlipidaemia.
Endothelial function is defective in hypercholesterolaemia, and animal models have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may prevent arterial damage. We studied the effect of 6 months treatment with lisinopril on endothelial function in a group of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Forty patients were studied. Forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. Subjects were then randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either lisinopril, 20 mg/day (n=20), or placebo (n=20) for 6 months. Plethysmography was then repeated. Baseline variables between groups were comparable. In the lisinopril group blood pressure fell significantly [systolic: 145+/-4 to 128+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001); diastolic: 84+/-2 to 74+/-2 mmHg (P<0.001)]. An improvement was found in the vasodilatory response (expressed as a ratio of the infused/control arm) to acetylcholine, e.g. 3.33+/-0.3 (pre) versus 4.45+/-0.48 (post) at 30 microg/ml (P<0.03), and also to nitroprusside, e.g. 3.0+/-0.2 (pre) versus 3.86+/-0.3 (post) at 3.2 microg/ml (P<0.01). In the placebo group vasodilatation did not change significantly in response to acetylcholine, and nitroprusside responses were unchanged. The data presented suggest that 6 months of lisinopril therapy have a beneficial effect on arterial function in subjects with hyperlipidaemia. Further work should now investigate whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are beneficial in reducing mortality and morbidity in hypercholesterolaemia. (+info)