Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene encoding limonoid UDP-glucosyltransferase in Citrus.
We isolated a cDNA clone encoding limonoid UDP-glucosyltransferase (limonoid GTase) from the albedo of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and investigated the contribution to limonoid glucoside accumulation in fruit. The isolated cDNA clone (CitLGT) was 1732 bp in length encoding 511 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.5 kDa. The products of in vitro translation from an expression vector had the limonoid GTase activity. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicated that CitLGT was present as a single copy gene in the Citrus genome. The amount of transcript corresponding to CitLGT mRNA changed the same way as the fluctuation of limonin glucoside content during fruit development of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.). This indicates that the transcription of CitLGT regulates the conversion of limonoid aglycones to glucosides in citrus fruit. (+info)
Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats by the citrus limonoids obacunone and limonin.
The modifying effects of dietary administration of the citrus limonoids obacunone and limonin on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumorigenesis were investigated in two experiments in male F344 rats. In a pilot study, we examined the modifying effects of obacunone and limonin on AOM-induced (20 mg/kg body wt, once a week for 2 weeks) formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Dietary feeding of both compounds at dose levels of 200 and 500 p.p.m. during AOM exposure for 4 weeks ('initiation' feeding) or after AOM treatment for 4 weeks ('post-initiation' feeding) significantly inhibited ACF formation (55-65% reduction by 'initiation' feeding, P < 0.001; 28-42% reduction by 'post-initiation' feeding, P < 0.05-0.002). In a long-term study designed to confirm the protective effects of obacunone and limonin on ACF development, one group was treated with AOM alone and another four groups received the carcinogen treatment plus diets containing 500 p.p.m. test compounds for 3 weeks (initiation phase) or 29 weeks (post-initiation phase). Two groups were treated with obacunone or limonin alone (500 p.p.m. in diet) and one group was maintained on the basal diet. At the termination of the study, dietary exposure to obacunone or limonin during the initiation phase was found to have significantly reduced the incidence of colonic adenocarcinoma (72 versus 25 or 6%, P = 0.004 or 0.00003). Obacunone or limonin feeding during the post-initiation phase also reduced the frequency of colonic adenocarcinoma (72 versus 13%, P = 0.0002). Our results suggest that the citrus limonoids obacunone and limonin might be useful for the prevention of human colon cancers. (+info)
DNA synthesis in the imaginal wing discs of the American bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).
The effect of two insect growth regulators of plant origin viz. plumbagin and azadirachtin and the ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone, makisterone A and a phytoecdysteroid on DNA synthesis in imaginal wing discs of day 4 final instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae was studied. DNA synthesis increased with increase in time of incubation up to 8 h and decreased later without the addition of moulting hormone. Addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone supported long term acquisition of competence for DNA synthesis in the wing discs. Both DNA synthesis and protein content were drastically reduced in plumbagin and azadirachtin-treated insects. Under in vitro conditions, plumbagin had a more pronounced inhibitory effect than azadirachtin. All the ecdysteroids tested, viz. makisterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone and the ecdysteroidal fraction from the silver fern Cheilanthes farinosa enhanced DNA synthesis. (+info)
Potent limonoid insect antifeedant from Melia azedarach.
Systematic fractionation of a fruit extract from Argentine Melia azedarach L., which was monitored by an insect antifeedant bioassay, led to the isolation of meliartenin, a limonoid antifeedant, which existed as a mixture of two interchangeable isomers. At 4 microg/cm2 and 1 microg/cm2, the isomeric mixture was as active as azadirachtin in strongly inhibiting the larval feeding of Epilachna paenulata Germ. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the polyphagous pest, Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. (+info)
Effects of azadirachtin on Rhodnius prolixus: immunity and Trypanosoma interaction.
The effects of azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Azadirachta indica J., on both immunity and Trypanosoma cruzi interaction within Rhodnius prolixus and other triatomines, were presented. Given through a blood meal, azadirachtin affected the immune reactivity as shown by a significant reduction in numbers of hemocytes and consequently nodule formation following challenge with Enterobacter cloacae beta 12, reduction in ability to produce antibacterial activities in the hemolymph when injected with bacteria, and decreased ability to destroy the infection caused by inoculation of E. cloacae cells. A single dose of azadirachtin was able to block the development of T. cruzi in R. prolixus if given through the meal at different intervals, together with, before or after parasite infection. Similarly, these results were observed with different triatomine species and different strains of T. cruzi. Azadirachtin induced a permanent resistance of the vector against reinfection with T. cruzi. The significance of these data is discussed in relation to the general mode of azadirachtin action in insects. (+info)
Block of vesicular stomatitis virus endocytic and exocytic pathways by 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin, a tetranortriterpenoid of natural origin.
Previously, it has been shown that 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM), a natural compound isolated from leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L., inhibits the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) multiplication cycle when added before or after infection. Here, we have established that the lack of VSV protein synthesis in CDM pre-treated Vero cells is ascribed to the inhibition of an initial step during virus multiplication, although indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) studies confirmed that the binding and uptake of [(35)S]methionine-labelled VSV was not affected by CDM pre-treatment. Instead, our findings revealed that this compound impedes the uncoating of VSV nucleocapsids in pre-treated Vero cells, since the antiviral action of CDM was partially reversed by inducing VSV direct fusion at the plasma membrane, and VSV M protein fluorescence was confined to the endosomes, even 2 h post-internalization. Furthermore, CDM induced cytoplasmic alkalinization, as shown by acridine orange staining, consistent with the inhibition of virus uncoating. Although VSV proteins are synthesized when CDM is added after infection, IFI studies revealed that G protein was absent from the surface of infected cells and co-localized with a Golgi marker. Therefore, CDM inhibits the transport of G protein to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these findings indicate that CDM exerts its antiviral action on the endocytic and exocytic pathways of VSV by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. (+info)
Novel antimalarial compounds isolated in a survey of self-medicative behavior of wild chimpanzees in Uganda.
Following a veterinary and behavioral survey of chimpanzees from a natural population in Uganda, leaf samples of Trichilia rubescens were collected because of the unusual method of ingestion observed. The methanolic crude extract of T. rubescens leaves exhibited significant antimalarial activity in vitro. Bioassay-directed fractionation provided two new limonoids, trichirubines A and B. A greater understanding of the role of secondary compounds in the primate diet may be helpful in recovering naturally occurring compounds of medicinal significance for human medicine. (+info)
Two new analogues of trijugin-type limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape.
Two new additional trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins D (4) and E (5), which are analogues of the previously reported sandrapins A-C (1-3), were isolated as minor components from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape (Meliaceae), and their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR spectral data. (+info)