Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), the enzyme schematically next to adenosine deaminase in the purine salvage pathway, has been demonstrated cytochemically in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy subjects and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. The enzyme activity is confined to the cytosol. In healthy subjects the majority of lymphocytes are strongly reactive for PNP, whereas the rest are devoid of cytochemically demonstrable activity. The percentage of PNP-positive cells largely corresponds to the number of E rosette-forming cells and is inversely proportional to the number of Ig-bearing cells. In six of seven CLL patients studied only a minor percentage of the lymphocytes showed strong PNP activity, whereas the large majority (88%--98%) possessed trace activity. Such patients have a high number of Ig-bearing cells and a low number of E rosette-forming cells. A different pattern of markers was found in the lymphocytes of the seventh CLL patient: 66% were strongly reactive for PNP, an important number formed E rosettes, and a minor percentage were Ig bearing. These data indicate that PNP can be useful as a "nonmembrane" marker in the differentiation of the B and T cell origin in CLL and deserves to be studied in other lymphoproliferative disorders. (+info
Increased sensitivity of hydroxyurea-resistant leukemic cells to gemcitabine.
Tumor cell resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents may result in cross-resistance to related antineoplastic agents. To study cross-resistance among inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase, we developed hydroxyurea-resistant (HU-R) CCRF-CEM cells. These cells were 6-fold more resistant to hydroxyurea than the parent hydroxyurea-sensitive (HU-S) cell line and displayed an increase in the mRNA and protein of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. We examined whether HU-R cells were cross-resistant to gemcitabine, a drug that blocks cell proliferation by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase and incorporating itself into DNA. Contrary to our expectation, HU-R cells had an increased sensitivity to gemcitabine. The IC50 of gemcitabine was 0.061 +/- 0.03 microM for HU-R cells versus 0.16 +/- 0.02 microM for HU-S cells (P = 0.005). The cellular uptake of [3H]gemcitabine and its incorporation into DNA were increased in HU-R cells. Over an 18-h incubation with radiolabeled gemcitabine (0.25 microM), gemcitabine uptake was 286 +/- 37.3 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-R cells and 128 +/- 8.8 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-S cells (P = 0.03). The incorporation of gemcitabine into DNA was 75 +/- 6.7 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-R cells versus 22 +/- 0.6 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-S cells (P < 0.02). Our studies suggest that the increased sensitivity of HU-R cells to gemcitabine results from increased drug uptake by these cells. This, in turn, favors the incorporation of gemcitabine into DNA, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity. The increased sensitivity of malignant cells to gemcitabine after the development of hydroxyurea resistance may be relevant to the design of chemotherapeutic trials with these drugs. (+info
Skin reaction and antibody responses in guinea-pigs sensitized to human leukaemia cells or their nuclei in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin.
Guinea-pigs sensitized by subcutaneous injection of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) cells combined with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) displayed good skin reacitons 24 and 48 h after challenge with CLL cells. Equally good responses were also demonstrated using nuclei from the leukaemic cells in combination with BCG. These reactions were significantly greater than those produced in the same manner but without BCG. Sera form the animals were examined for the presence of antibodies against CLL cells by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques. Only samples from guinea-pigs innoculated with CLL cells were found to contain significant antibodies. Histological examination showed that whereas leukaemic cells persisted at the sensitizing injection site leukaemic cell nuclei could not be visualized. It is suggested that because leukaemic cell nuclei in combination with BCG are able to induce good skin reactivity without provoking a vigorous humoral antibody response they may have possible advantages over leukaemic cells when used for immunotherapy. (+info
The P190, P210, and P230 forms of the BCR/ABL oncogene induce a similar chronic myeloid leukemia-like syndrome in mice but have different lymphoid leukemogenic activity.
The product of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) translocation, the BCR/ABL oncogene, exists in three principal forms (P190, P210, and P230 BCR/ABL) that are found in distinct forms of Ph-positive leukemia, suggesting the three proteins have different leukemogenic activity. We have directly compared the tyrosine kinase activity, in vitro transformation properties, and in vivo leukemogenic activity of the P190, P210, and P230 forms of BCR/ABL. P230 exhibited lower intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity than P210 and P190. Although all three oncogenes transformed both myeloid (32D cl3) and lymphoid (Ba/F3) interleukin (IL)-3-dependent cell lines to become independent of IL-3 for survival and growth, their ability to stimulate proliferation of Ba/F3 lymphoid cells differed and correlated directly with tyrosine kinase activity. In a murine bone marrow transduction/transplantation model, the three forms of BCR/ABL were equally potent in the induction of a chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-like myeloproliferative syndrome in recipient mice when 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated donors were used. Analysis of proviral integration showed the CML-like disease to be polyclonal and to involve multiple myeloid and B lymphoid lineages, implicating a primitive multipotential target cell. Secondary transplantation revealed that only certain minor clones gave rise to day 12 spleen colonies and induced disease in secondary recipients, suggesting heterogeneity among the target cell population. In contrast, when marrow from non- 5-FU-treated donors was used, a mixture of CML-like disease, B lymphoid acute leukemia, and macrophage tumors was observed in recipients. P190 BCR/ABL induced lymphoid leukemia with shorter latency than P210 or P230. The lymphoid leukemias and macrophage tumors had provirus integration patterns that were oligo- or monoclonal and limited to the tumor cells, suggesting a lineage-restricted target cell with a requirement for additional events in addition to BCR/ABL transduction for full malignant transformation. These results do not support the hypothesis that P230 BCR/ABL induces a distinct and less aggressive form of CML in humans, and suggest that the rarity of P190 BCR/ABL in human CML may reflect infrequent BCR intron 1 breakpoints during the genesis of the Ph chromosome in stem cells, rather than intrinsic differences in myeloid leukemogenicity between P190 and P210. (+info
Selective, covalent modification of beta-tubulin residue Cys-239 by T138067, an antitumor agent with in vivo efficacy against multidrug-resistant tumors.
Microtubules are linear polymers of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimers and are the major constituents of mitotic spindles, which are essential for the separation of chromosomes during mitosis. Here we describe a synthetic compound, 2-fluoro-1-methoxy-4-pentafluorophenylsulfonamidobenzene (T138067), which covalently and selectively modifies the beta1, beta2, and beta4 isotypes of beta-tubulin at a conserved cysteine residue, thereby disrupting microtubule polymerization. Cells exposed to T138067 become altered in shape, indicating a collapse of the cytoskeleton, and show an increase in chromosomal ploidy. Subsequently, these cells undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, T138067 exhibits cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines that exhibit substantial resistance to vinblastine, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and actinomycin D. T138067 is also equally efficacious in inhibiting the growth of sensitive and multidrug-resistant human tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. These observations suggest that T138067 may be clinically useful for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tumors. (+info
Detection of p53 gene mutations in human leukemia by PCR-SSCP analysis and direct nucleotide sequencing.
OBJECTIVE: To look for mutations of the p53 gene in leukemic patients and study the relationship between abnormalities in p53 gene and leukemogenesis. METHODS: The peripheral blood and Bone Marrow Samples were collected from 36 patients with various leukemia types including 14 cases of lymphocytic leukemia [8 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 4 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 2 cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL)] and 22 cases of myelocytic leukemia [11 cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), 11 cases of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)]. DNA structures of exon 5-8 of the p53 gene were scanned by PCR-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products). The appropriate DNA fragments were amplified, Purified and sequenced directly. RESULTS: By PCR-SSCP analysis, shifts in electrophoretic mobility of the p53 gene were detected in 3 of 14 patients with lymphocytic leukemia (2 ALL and 1 CLL), but none in 22 patients with myelocytic leukemia including one in blastic crisis. Direct nucleotide sequencing in one patient with ALL showed transition of CTG to CAG at codon 257 of exon 7, resulting in a change of its encoded amino acids from aspartic acid to valine. To our knowledge, the mutation at this codon has not been previously reported hitherto. CONCLUSIONS: The p53 gene mutations are specifically associated with lymphocytic leukemia. Alternations of the p53 gene may play a certain role in leukemogenesis in some cases of lymphocytic leukemia. (+info
Effects of spin labeled derivatives of podophyllotoxin on cell cycle and macromolecular synthesis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells.
AIM: To examine the effect of the spin labeled derivatives of podophyllotoxin, N-podophyllic acid-N"-[4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy)] thiosemicarbazide (GP4) and 4-[4"-(2",2",6",6"-tetramethyl-1"-piperidinyloxy) amino]-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (GP7) on the cell cycle and macromolecular synthesis of human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells in vitro. METHODS: MTT assay, 3H incorporation, and flow cytometer were used. RESULTS: GP4, GP7, and etoposide 0.02-100 mmol.L-1 cultured for 48 h inhibited the proliferation of human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. IC50 values of GP4, GP7, and etoposide were 0.11, 4.7, and 1.6 mmol.L-1, respectively. DNA and protein syntheses were obviously suppressed by GP4, GP7, and etoposide 10 mmol.L-1 for 48 h. After Molt 4B cells were treated with GP4, GP7, and etoposide 10 mmol.L-1 for 6 and 12 h, the mitotic index was increased by GP4 and reduced by GP7 and etoposide. According to flow cytometric BrdU/DNA analysis, GP4 slightly retarded S phase and mainly arrested cell cycle progression in G2/M phase, whereas GP7 similar to etoposide induced cells accumulated at S phase and retarded the cells in G2 phase. CONCLUSION: GP4 and GP7 inhibit the proliferation of Molt 4B cells, but the mechanisms are different. (+info
Cleavage of the ALL1 gene in acute lymphoid leukemia before treatment disappears in relapse.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: ALL1 gene rearrangements are frequently found in secondary acute leukemias (ALs). A site-specific cleavage of the ALL1 gene in a consensus sequence for topoisomerase II recognition has been considered to be the initial step leading to ALL1 rearrangement and subsequent therapy-related AL. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this cleavage in our patients, to analyze whether it is a laboratory-produced artefact and to check whether it persists or causes a real ALL1 gene rearrangement at relapse. DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied ALL1 rearrangement in 74 cases of AL before treatment by Southern blot avoiding room temperature exposure or delay in processing the samples which could produce ALL1 cleavage. DNA was available for two cases with ALL1 cleavage; it was analyzed by three different Southern blots in one and two in the other. One case with ALL1 cleavage was also studied in relapse. RESULTS: The presence of the cleavage of the ALL1 DNA was found in 3 of 74 (4%) patients. Two of these three patients had the ALL1 cleavage in three and two different analyses. One case was positive for ALL1 cleavage at diagnosis, but negative for both ALL1 cleavage and ALL1 rearrangement at relapse. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The fact that a constant pattern was obtained from the same patients in different DNA preparations, supports the notion that ALL1 cleavage is not a laboratory artefact. The absence of the cleavage in a sample from a relapsed patient suggests that the subclone with the ALL1 cleavage, in this case, did not play a clear role in the pathogenesis of disease recurrence. (+info