Technegas versus (81m)Kr ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy: a comparative study in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism.
81mKr is widely used as a ventilation agent to diagnose pulmonary embolism (PE). However, (81m)Kr is expensive, which limits its continuous availability. Technegas can be an alternative ventilation agent with the advantage of being less expensive and available daily. The aim of this study was to compare the value of technegas with that of (81m)Kr in the detection of PE. METHODS: Ninety-two consecutive patients (29 men; mean +/- SD, 53 +/- 17 y old) with at least one segmental perfusion defect (Hull criteria) were studied prospectively. Perfusion and ventilation (V/Q) lung scintigraphy with both technegas and (81m)Kr were performed within 24 h on all patients. V/Q lung scan results were classified as high probability for PE (normal ventilation study) or nondiagnostic (abnormal ventilation study). All V/Q lung scans were read by two experienced nuclear physicians in consensus. For the intra- and interobserver variabilities, two experienced observers independently read the V/Q lung scans. RESULTS: (81m)Kr and technegas showed a good agreement (kappa, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.82). However, technegas significantly increased the number of nondiagnostic V/Q lung scans (P: = 0.035). In 15 patients, a discrepancy was found between (81m)Kr and technegas. False-positive V/Q lung scan results occurred in 4 of 12 patients (33%) with (81m)Kr and in 2 of 3 patients (66%) with technegas. The intra- and interobserver variabilities were 0.71-0.88 (95% CI, 0.56-1.0) for perfusion/(81m)Kr and 0.74-0.96 (95% CI, 0.58-1.0) for perfusion/technegas. CONCLUSION: In comparison with (81m)Kr, technegas does not result in more false-positive V/Q lung scan results. The use of technegas, however, increases the number of nondiagnostic V/Q lung scan results, which would increase the demand for further additional testing to confirm or refute PE. (+info)
How to use a gestalt interpretation for ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy.
The use of a so-called gestalt interpretation, an integration of different sets of criteria and the physician's own experience, has been advocated in the interpretation of lung scintigraphs of patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. However, data on the reliability of this approach are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the observer variability and accuracy of the gestalt interpretation of perfusion scintigraphy (combined with chest radiography) as well as the impact of adding ventilation scintigraphy and clinical pretest information. METHODS: Three experienced observers independently reviewed the chest radiograph and ventilation-perfusion scans of 101 consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. All datasets were reviewed twice by each observer, using a visual analog scale to indicate the estimated probability of pulmonary embolism. The results of the gestalt interpretations were analyzed against the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: All 3 gestalt interpretations had a good-to-excellent interobserver variability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.73-0.89), with similar intraobserver agreement (ICC, 0.76-0.95). The performance of all 3 readers was comparable. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of all 3 observers were high and similar (for observer 1, the AUCs were 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.93-1.00), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-1.00), and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-1.00), respectively, for the 3 gestalt interpretations). CONCLUSION: A gestalt interpretation is a useful classification scheme with good-to-excellent intra- and interobserver variability. However, the interpretation and the consequences of this result are dependent on the observer. Unexpectedly, the addition of information on ventilation scintigraphy and clinical information did not affect the overall assessment. (+info)
Perfusion and ventilation isotope lung scans in constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans. A series of three cases.
Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) has been defined as a syndrome of airflow limitation due to bronchiolar and peribronchiolar inflammation and fibrosis. However, chest roentgenograms are frequently normal, and alternative radiographic evaluation or other manifestations of the disease would be required. Here we report three patients with BO. We performed a technetium-99(m)-labeled macroaggregate human albumin lung perfusion scan and a ventilation scan using krypton-81(m). We observed multiple matched defects in the perfusion and ventilation scans in these patients, which represent narrowing or obliteration of the bronchiolar lumen and its adjacent pulmonary arteriole. We propose that this is a useful diagnostic approach for an imaging study of BO. (+info)
Distribution of ventilation/perfusion ratios in pulmonary embolism: an adjunct to the interpretation of ventilation/perfusion lung scans.
Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) by visual interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans is limited by the high percentages of patients classified in the intermediate- and low-probability categories. This study proposes a quantitative analysis of the distribution of V/Q ratios to better identify patients with PE. METHODS: We studied 99 consecutive patients who underwent dual-isotope (81m)Kr/(99m)Tc-macroaggregate V/Q scanning and arterial blood gas analysis within 48 h. The 8-view V/Q scans were visually analyzed by 2 observers according to the revised criteria of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) (normal scan or low, intermediate, or high probability of PE). Quantitative analysis of the posterior-view distribution histogram of V/Q ratios was performed using dedicated software. Briefly, regions of interest were drawn around the lungs on the matched V/Q images, smooth filtering was applied, normalized regional V/Q ratios were calculated within each pixel, and a distribution histogram was built. RESULTS: Patients with normal scans (n = 16) had a predominance of V/Q ratios (63.3% +/- 13.0%) between 0.8 and 1.2. They had only 9.8% +/- 5.8% of ratios > 1.2, and the remaining 26.9% +/- 7.5% of ratios were <0.8. By contrast, patients with PE (n = 34) were characterized by a significant increase (15.5 +/- 10.0%, P = 0.04) in high V/Q ratios (>1.2) and a significant increase (34.5% +/- 8.2%, P = 0.003) in low V/Q ratios (<0.8). Interestingly, a similar pattern was found in patients with a high PIOPED probability of PE, 21.3% +/- 11.0% and 37.5% +/- 9.2%, respectively. Within the nondiagnostic group (intermediate- + low-probability scans, n = 58), 17 patients were finally diagnosed with PE. Analysis of the distribution histogram in this group allowed the identification of 5 patients with PE (specificity, 78%). CONCLUSION: A quantitative approach to lung scan interpretation, based on the distribution histogram of V/Q ratios, may be helpful for categorizing patients with suspected PE. (+info)
Comparison of observer variability and accuracy of different criteria for lung scan interpretation.
Different criteria have been advocated for the interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scans in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Besides these predefined criteria, many physicians use an integration of the different sets of criteria and their own experience-the so-called Gestalt interpretation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability and accuracy of 3 sets of criteria: the Hull and PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) criteria and the Gestalt interpretation. METHODS: Two experienced observers interpreted V/Q scans of all 328 patients according to the 3 different schemes. The diagnostic classification obtained for the different sets of criteria was analyzed against the presence or absence of PE. RESULTS: The interobserver variabilities as assessed by the kappa statistics of the PIOPED and Hull criteria and for the Gestalt interpretation were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.76), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73-0.85), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72), respectively. The differences in kappa values between the Hull and PIOPED criteria and between the Hull criteria and Gestalt interpretation were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). For 16 patients (14 without PE) with a normal lung scan result according to the Hull criteria, the result according to the PIOPED criteria was low probability. For 21 patients (12 with PE), the scans were intermediate probability according to the PIOPED criteria, whereas the result with the Hull criteria was high probability. Analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves yielded a comparable area under the curve for all sets of criteria (0.87-0.90). CONCLUSION: The Hull, PIOPED, and Gestalt interpretation of V/Q lung scans all have a good accuracy and interobserver variability. However, the reproducibility of the Hull criteria is superior in comparison with that of the other sets of criteria. (+info)
Can dynamic krypton-81m imaging separate regional ventilation and volume?
This study explores the assumption that 81mKr static images represent regional ventilation. Dynamic acquisition of 81mKr ventilation images permits creation of time-activity curves and the possible separation of the confounding influences of ventilation and volume. By using a two-compartment gas mixing lung phantom, the results demonstrate that both total and tidal 81mKr are closely related to regional ventilation. In 61 children and 15 adult volunteers, there was good agreement between fractional ventilation assessed by total and tidal 81mKr. The dynamic steady-state ventilation image can be analyzed to separate tidally exchanged and resident 81mKr. This may allow regional ventilation to be distinguished from regional volume. (+info)
Non-invasive diagnosis of tracheobronchomalacia using a modified ventilation radioisotope lung scan.
The use of radionuclide ventilation lung scan to characterise the physiological effects of tracheobronchomalacia is a novel application of this non-invasive technique. In the reported case the right upper lobe was found to be not ventilated below a pressure of 20 cm H2O despite evidence from a dynamic tracheobronchogram of the right upper lobe bronchus opening at the lower pressure of 15 cm H2O. (+info)
Spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric 85Kr observed during 1995-2001 in Japan: estimation of atmospheric 85Kr inventory in the Northern Hemisphere.
Atmospheric 85Kr concentrations have been continuously monitored since 1995 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) in Tsukuba, Japan. They have also been observed once a year at several stations over the Japanese islands since 1995. The annual growth rate of the background atmospheric 85Kr concentrations in Tsukuba was 0.03 Bq x m(-3) x yr(-1) during 1996-2001. The atmospheric 85Kr concentrations at several stations over Japan were within the range of the annual variations in Tsukuba. However, higher and lower 85Kr concentrations in early winter, compared with those in Tsukuba (36.1 degrees N, 140.1 degrees E), occurred in Sapporo (43.1 degrees N, 141.3 degrees E) and Ishigaki (24.3 degrees N, 124.2 degrees E), respectively. The reason for this is that Sapporo is covered by a continental air mass, some from European sources, whereas Ishigaki is still covered by a subtropical air mass. The Northern Hemispheric background 85Kr concentrations from 1994 to 2001 was calculated from the 85Kr inventory and the release rate of 85Kr from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe. Calculated 85Kr concentrations in surface air were in good agreement with annual average observed values at the MRI, Tsukuba. The global atmospheric inventory of 85Kr in December 2001 was also estimated to be approximately 5 EBq by using observed data in Tsukuba. (+info)