Dietary potassium bicarbonate and potassium citrate have a greater inhibitory effect than does potassium chloride on magnesium absorption in wethers.
We addressed the question whether the type of anion in potassium salts affects magnesium absorption and the transmural potential difference by using wethers (n = 8) fed a control diet and diets supplemented with equimolar amounts of KHCO(3), KCl or K-citrate according to a Latin-square design. The control diet contained 10.9 g K/kg dry matter and the high K diets contained 41.3 g K/kg dry matter. Compared with the control diet, KHCO(3) and K-citrate significantly reduced apparent Mg absorption by 9.5 and 6.5%, respectively. Supplemental KCl tended to reduce (P = 0.070) group mean magnesium absorption by 5.5%. Consumption of supplemental KHCO(3) and K-citrate produced a significant increase in the transmural potential difference (serosal side = positive) by 17.1 and 20.7 mV, respectively, whereas the addition of KCl to the diet did not. The individual values for the four diets tended to show a negative correlation (r = -0.336, n = 32, P = 0.060) between the transmural potential difference and apparent magnesium absorption. We conclude that different potassium salts have different effects on magnesium absorption in ruminants as caused by different effects on the transmural potential difference. (+info)
Citrate therapy for polycystic kidney disease in rats.
BACKGROUND: Few treatments are available to slow the progression to renal failure in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In an animal model of PKD, the male heterozygous Han:SPRD rat, intake of a solution of potassium citrate plus citric acid (KCitr) from age one to three months prevented a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study tested whether this beneficial effect is sustained and explored handling of citrate and ammonia in normal and cystic kidneys. METHODS: Rats were provided with tap water or citrate solutions to drink, and clearance and survival studies were performed. RESULTS: The GFRs of rats with PKD that consumed KCitr from one month of age were normal at six months of age, while those of their counterparts on water were about one third of normal. Long-term KCitr treatment extended the average life span of rats with PKD from 10 to 17 months. Compared with normal rats, water-drinking rats with PKD had higher plasma [citrate], renal cortical [citrate], and fractional excretion of citrate, and lower rates of renal citrate consumption, ammonia synthesis, and ammonia excretion. Cortical PNH3 was not elevated in cystic kidneys. Intake of Na3 citrate/citric acid solution or K3 citrate solution, but not ammonium citrate/citric acid solution, prevented a decline in GFR in three-month-old rats with PKD. CONCLUSIONS: Rats with PKD show abnormal renal handling of citrate and ammonia. Citrate salts that have an alkalinizing effect preserve GFR and extend survival. (+info)
Chloride-sensitive renal microangiopathy in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.
BACKGROUND: In the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) fed a low-normal NaCl diet, we recently reported that supplemental KCl, but not KHCO(3) or K-citrate (KB/C), exacerbated hypertension and induced hyperreninemia and strokes. We now ask the following question: In these SHRSP, is either such selectively Cl(-)-sensitive hypertension or hyperreninemia a pathogenetic determinant of renal microvasculopathy? METHODS: SHRSPs were randomized to either supplemental KCl, KB/C, or nothing (control) at 10 weeks of age. Four and 14 weeks afterward, we assessed renal microangiopathy histologically and measured plasma renin activity (PRA). From randomization, blood pressure was measured radiotelemetrically and continually; proteinuria was measured periodically. RESULTS: KCl, but not KB/C, amplified renal microangiopathy and proteinuria. Four weeks after randomization, when KCl initially exacerbated hypertension, renal microangiopathy, hyperproteinuria, and hyperreninemia had not yet occurred. However, across all groups, the increment of SBP at four weeks strongly predicted its final increment, severity of renal microangiopathy, proteinuria, and PRA 14 weeks after randomization. Then, the severity of renal microangiopathy varied directly with the levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP; R(2) = 0.9, P < 0.0001), PRA (R(2) = 0.7, P < 0.0001), and proteinuria (R(2) = 0.8, P < 0.0001) as continuous functions across all treatment groups. Renal creatinine clearance was greater with KB/C. CONCLUSIONS: In the SHRSP, (1) like cerebral microangiopathy, renal microangiopathy is selectively Cl(-) sensitive and hence, systemic microangiopathy is as well; (2) Cl(-) likely amplifies microangiopathy by exacerbating hypertension and possibly also by increasing PRA; and (3) Cl(-) might increase blood pressure and PRA by further constricting the renal afferent arteriole. (+info)
Distal renal tubular acidosis with severe hypokalaemia, probably caused by colonic H(+)-K(+)-ATPase deficiency.
We describe a 21 month old male infant who presented with failure to thrive associated with severe hypokalaemia and metabolic acidosis, together with hypomagnesaemia. Evaluation revealed marked renal and probable faecal potassium wasting, distal renal tubular acidosis, mild urinary magnesium wasting, and a normal gastric pH (gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPase). Hypokalaemic forms of metabolic acidosis, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis were ruled out from the clinical picture. The hypokalaemia of distal renal tubular acidosis usually improves with alkali therapy, but this was not observed: despite correction of acidosis with 5 mmol/kg potassium citrate per day, an additional 5 mmol/kg potassium chloride was required to bring serum potassium to 3.5 mmol/l. At 3 years of age potassium was provided in the absence of potential alkali and acidosis ensued; serum bicarbonate fell to 10 mmol/l. Although a specific genetic analysis is not yet possible, the abnormalities are consistent with a novel form of distal renal tubular acidosis. The pathophysiology probably does not stem from defects in the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase but more likely from deficient activity of the colonic isoform of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase that is resident in the medullary collecting duct and mediates potassium absorption and proton secretion. (+info)
Bone histology and bone mineral density after correction of acidosis in distal renal tubular acidosis.
BACKGROUND: The association between chronic metabolic acidosis and alterations in bone cell functions has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. However, the causal role of acidosis and the effects of alkaline therapy on bone histology and bone mineral density in chronic metabolic acidosis have never been systematically demonstrated in humans. This study was conducted to examine the alterations in bone mineral density and bone histology before and after correction of acidosis among patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) METHODS: Correction of metabolic acidosis by potassium citrate was done in non-azotemic dRTA patients, 6 females and 4 males, who had never received long-term alkaline therapy before enrolling into this study. Blood chemistries, serum intact parathyroid hormone, and 24-hour urine collection for the determination of urinary calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium, bone mineral density determination, and transiliac bone biopsy were done in all patients at baseline and after one year of potassium citrate therapy. RESULTS: Significant elevations in serum bicarbonate (16.5 +/- 3.0 vs. 24.6 +/- 2.8 mEq/L, P < 0.05) and urinary potassium excretion (35.2 +/- 7.9 vs. 55.4 +/-3.5 mEq/L, P < 0.05) were observed after potassium citrate therapy. No significant alterations in other serum and urine electrolytes were found after the therapy. Serum intact parathyroid hormone level was also significantly elevated after one year of treatment (12.8 +/- 7.3 vs. 26.2 +/- 8.7 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Bone formation rate was significantly suppressed at baseline and was normalized by the treatment (0.02 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03 microm(3)/microm(2)/day, P < 0.05). There were non-significant elevations in trabecular bone volume, osteoblastic and osteoclastic numbers. Bone mineral densities in dRTA patients were also significantly decreased below normal values in most studied areas at baseline and were significantly elevated at the trochanter of femur (0.677 +/- 0.136 vs. 0.748 +/- 0.144 g/c m(2), P < 0.05) and total femur (0.898 +/- 0.166 vs. 0.976 +/- 0.154 g/c m(2), P < 0.05) after the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that alkaline therapy corrects abnormal bone cell function and elevates bone mineral density in dRTA patients, indicating the causal role of acidosis in the alterations of bone cell functions and reduction in bone mineral density. Parathyroid gland activity also may be involved in the adaptation of the body to chronic metabolic acidosis. (+info)
Effect of short-term supplementation of potassium chloride and potassium citrate on blood pressure in hypertensives.
Randomized trials have shown that increasing potassium intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials used potassium chloride, whereas potassium in fruits and vegetables is not a chloride salt. It is unclear whether a nonchloride salt of potassium has a greater or lesser effect on blood pressure compared with potassium chloride. We performed a randomized crossover trial comparing potassium chloride with potassium citrate (96 mmol/d, each for 1 week) in 14 hypertensive individuals. At baseline, blood pressure was 151+/-16/93+/-7 mm Hg with a 24-hour urinary potassium of 81+/-24 mmol. During the randomized crossover part of the study, blood pressure was 140+/-12/88+/-7 mm Hg with potassium chloride (24-hour urinary potassium: 164+/-36 mmol) and 138+/-12/88+/-6 mm Hg with potassium citrate (24-hour urinary potassium: 160+/-33 mmol). These blood pressures were significantly lower compared with that at baseline; however, there was no significant difference in blood pressure between potassium chloride and potassium citrate, mean difference (95% confidence interval): 1.6 (-2.3 to 5.6) mm Hg for systolic and 0.6 (-2.4 to 3.7) mm Hg for diastolic. Our results, in conjunction with the evidence from many previous trials that potassium chloride has a significant blood pressure-lowering effect, suggest that potassium citrate has a similar effect on blood pressure as potassium chloride. These results support other evidence for an increase in potassium intake and indicate that potassium does not need to be given in the form of chloride to lower blood pressure. Increasing the consumption of foods high in potassium is likely to have the same effect on blood pressure as potassium chloride. (+info)
Subcutaneous fat necrosis with hypercalcemia.
Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon condition and may be complicated by hypercalcemia. A 28-day-old neonate, presenting with SCFN, hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis was managed with intravenous saline followed by furosemide, oral prednisolone, potassium citrate and etidronate. (+info)
Partial neutralization of the acidogenic Western diet with potassium citrate increases bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.
Chronic acid loads are an obligate consequence of the high animal/grain protein content of the Western diet. The effect of this diet-induced metabolic acidosis on bone mass is controversial. In a randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind trial, 161 postmenopausal women (age 58.6 +/- 4.8 yr) with low bone mass (T score -1 to -4) were randomly assigned to 30 mEq of oral potassium (K) citrate (Kcitrate) or 30 mEq of K chloride (KCl) daily. The primary end point was the intergroup difference in mean percentage change in bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (L2 through L4) after 12 mo. Compared with the women who received KCl, women who received Kcitrate exhibited an intergroup increase in BMD (+/-SE) of 1.87 +/- 0.50% at L2 through L4 (P < 0.001), of 1.39 +/- 0.48% (P < 0.001) at femoral neck, and of 1.98 +/- 0.51% (P < 0.001) at total hip. Significant secondary end point intragroup changes also were found: Kcitrate increased L2 through L4 BMD significantly from baseline at months 3, 9, and 12 and reached a month 12 increase of 0.89 +/- 0.30% (P < 0.05), whereas the KCl arm showed a decreased L2 through L4 BMD by -0.98 +/- 0.38% (P < 0.05), significant only at month 12. Intergroup differences for distal radius and total body were NS. The Kcitrate-treated group demonstrated a sustained and significant reduction in urinary calcium excretion and a significant increase in urinary citrate excretion, with increased citrate excretion indicative of sustained systemic alkalization. Urinary bone resorption marker excretion rates were significantly reduced by Kcitrate, and for deoxypyridinoline, the intergroup difference was significant. Urinary net acid excretion correlated inversely and significantly with the change in BMD in a subset of patients. Large and significant reductions in BP were observed for both K supplements during the entire 12 mo. Bone mass can be increased significantly in postmenopausal women with osteopenia by increasing their daily alkali intake as citrate, and the effect is independent of reported skeletal effects of K. (+info)