Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances rat skeletal muscle charge movement and L-type Ca2+ channel gene expression.
1. We investigated whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), an endogenous potent activator of skeletal muscle proliferation and differentiation, enhances L-type Ca2+ channel gene expression resulting in increased functional voltage sensors in single skeletal muscle cells. 2. Charge movement and inward Ca2+ current were recorded in primary cultured rat myoballs using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Ca2+ current and maximum charge movement (Qmax) were potentiated in cells treated with IGF-1 without significant changes in their voltage dependence. Peak Ca2+ current in control and IGF-1-treated cells was -7.8 +/- 0.44 and -10. 5 +/- 0.37 pA pF-1, respectively (P < 0.01), whilst Qmax was 12.9 +/- 0.4 and 22.0 +/- 0.3 nC microF-1, respectively (P < 0.01). 3. The number of L-type Ca2+ channels was found to increase in the same preparation. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of the high-affinity radioligand [3H]PN200-110 in control and IGF-1-treated cells was 1.21 +/- 0.25 and 3.15 +/- 0.5 pmol (mg protein)-1, respectively (P < 0.01). No significant change in the dissociation constant for [3H]PN200-110 was found. 4. Antisense RNA amplification showed a significant increase in the level of mRNA encoding the L-type Ca2+ channel alpha1-subunit in IGF-1-treated cells. 5. This study demonstrates that IGF-1 regulates charge movement and the level of L-type Ca2+ channel alpha1-subunits through activation of gene expression in skeletal muscle cells. (+info)
A region in IVS5 of the human cardiac L-type calcium channel is required for the use-dependent block by phenylalkylamines and benzothiazepines.
Mutations in motif IVS5 and IVS6 of the human cardiac calcium channel were made using homologous residues from the rat brain sodium channel 2a. [3H]PN200-110 and allosteric binding assays revealed that the dihydropyridine and benzothiazepine receptor sites maintained normal coupling in the chimeric mutant channels. Whole cell voltage clamp recording from Xenopus oocytes showed a dramatically slowed inactivation and a complete loss of use-dependent block for mutations in the cytoplasmic connecting link to IVS5 (HHT-5371) and in IVS5 transmembrane segment (HHT-5411) with both diltiazem and verapamil. However, the use-dependent block by isradipine was retained by these two mutants. For mutants HHT-5411 and HHT-5371, the residual current appeared associated with a loss of voltage dependence in the rate of inactivation indicating a destabilization of the inactivated state. Furthermore, both HHT-5371 and -5411 recovered from inactivation significantly faster after drug block than that of the wild type channel. Our data demonstrate that accelerated recovery of HHT-5371 and HHT-5411 decreased accumulation of these channels in inactivation during pulse trains and suggest a close link between inactivation gating of the channel and use-dependent block by phenylalkylamines and benzothiazepines and provide evidence of a role for the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of IVS5 in the use-dependent block by diltiazem and verapamil. (+info)
Calcium antagonist isradipine improves abnormal endothelium-dependent vasodilation in never treated hypertensive patients.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether middle (two months) and long-term (six months) isradipine sustained-release treatment improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in never treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: The responses of the forearm vasculature to acetylcholine (7.5, 15 and 30 micrograms/min) and sodium nitroprusside (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 micrograms/min) were evaluated in 12 normotensive controls (seven men and five women, aged 25 to 49 years), and in 12 hypertensives (eight men and four women, aged 20 to 47 years) at baseline and after two and six months of isradipine sustained-release treatment. Drugs were infused into the brachial artery, and forearm blood flow was measured by strain-gauge plethysmography. RESULTS: At baseline, the response to acetylcholine was significantly lower in hypertensives vs controls: at the highest dose (30 micrograms/min), forearm blood flow was 28.6 +/- 2.4 ml/100 ml of tissue per min in the controls vs 8.9 +/- 1.0 ml/100 ml of tissue per min in hypertensive (p < 0.0001). Similarly, vascular resistance was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in hypertensives: 4.8 +/- 0.5 units (controls) vs 15.1 +/- 1.7 units (hypertensives). After isradipine treatment, the forearm blood flow in hypertensive patients changed from 8.9 +/- 1.0 ml/100 ml of tissue per min to 16.0 +/- 1.2 ml/100 ml of tissue per min (two months; p < 0.0001) and 15.2 +/- 1.4 ml/100 ml of tissue per min (six months; p < 0.0001). Isradipine treatment did not modify the vasodilating effect of sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that the calcium antagonist isradipine improves acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in hypertensives. (+info)
Distinctions in the molecular determinants of charged and neutral dihydropyridine block of L-type calcium channels.
We investigated block of the alpha1Cb subunit of L-type calcium channels by dihydropyridines (DHPs) in which a permanently charged or neutral head group was linked to the active DHP moiety by a spacer chain containing ten methylene (-CH2) groups. We compared the sensitivity of channel modulation by the charged (DHPch) and neutral (DHPn) forms to specific alpha1Cb mutations in domains IIIS5, IIIS6, and IVS6, which had previously been shown to reduce channel modulation by the neutral DHP (+)-isradipine. The effects of these mutations were studied on channel block recorded from polarized (-80 mV) and depolarized (-40 mV) holding potentials (HPs). We found that channel block by DHPn was markedly reduced at both HPs by each mutation studied. In contrast, channel block by DHPch was only modestly reduced by mutations in IIIS6 and IVS6 for block from either -40 mV or -80 mV. Replacement of IIIS5 Thr1061 by Tyr, which abolished block by DHPn in an HP-independent manner, had little effect on channel block by DHPch recorded from -40 mV. However, this mutation markedly reduced DHPch block of currents recorded from a -80 mV HP. Inhibition of current by DHPch was not markedly use-dependent, in contrast with block by verapamil, another charged calcium channel blocker. These results suggest that the presence of a permanently charged head group restricts the access of the attached DHP moiety to a subset of interaction residues on the alpha1C subunit in a voltage-dependent manner. Furthermore, these restricted interactions confer distinct functional properties upon the charged DHP molecules. (+info)
Isradipine and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive rats.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a reduction in blood pressure, by using the calcium channel antagonist isradipine, on insulin sensitivity and vascular responses to insulin in conscious spontaneously hypertensive male rats (SHR). The rats were instrumented with intravascular catheters and pulsed Doppler flow probes to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and blood flows. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Two groups of rats received isradipine at a dose of 0.05 or 0.15 mg. kg-1. h-1, whereas a third group received a continuous infusion of vehicle (15% DMSO). Both doses of isradipine were found to decrease mean blood pressure (-25 +/- 4 mmHg at the dose of 0.05 mg. kg-1. h-1 and -20 +/- 2 mmHg at the dose of 0.15 mg. kg-1. h-1) and to improve insulin sensitivity. Moreover, in the rats treated with the low dose of isradipine, we observed vasodilations in renal, superior mesenteric, and hindquarter vascular beds. In the untreated group, the euglycemic infusion of insulin (4 mU. kg-1. min-1) was found to cause vasoconstrictions in superior mesenteric and hindquarter vascular beds, but no changes in mean blood pressure, heart rate, or renal vascular conductance were found. In contrast, in the isradipine-treated groups, the same dose of insulin was found to produce vasodilations in the renal vascular bed and to abolish the vasoconstrictor responses previously observed. We concluded that short-term treatment with isradipine in SHR can lower blood pressure and improve insulin sensitivity, mainly through hemodynamic factors, as supported by experiments with hydralazine as a positive vasodilator control. (+info)
Reconstruction of the dihydropyridine site in a non-L-type calcium channel: the role of the IS6 segment.
Mutations of eight to nine amino acids of IIIS5, IIIS6 and IVS6 segments were shown to reconstruct the dihydropyridine (DHP) interaction site in the non-L-type alpha1E or alpha1A calcium channels. The reconstructed site enabled enantiomer-selective inhibition and activation of the expressed chimeras by DHPs but failed to transfer voltage dependence of the current inhibition. Here we show that transfer of four non-conserved amino acids from the IS6 segment to the DHP-sensitive alpha1E chimera increased the inhibition by (+)isradipine at the hyperpolarized membrane potential of -100 mV and enhanced the voltage-dependent block. (+info)
Dihydropyridine enantiomers block recombinant L-type Ca2+ channels by two different mechanisms.
1. The molecular basis of the state-dependent block of L-type Ca2+ channels by dihydropyridines is still poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the enantioselectivity of Ca2+ channel block by isradipine enantiomers at three holding potentials (-80, -60 and -40 mV) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the rabbit lung alpha1C-b-subunit. 2. The extent of enantioselectivity did not markedly change with the holding potential (IC50 ratios of 104-138), whereas the potency of both isradipine enantiomers increased with depolarisation of the holding potential. 3. In addition to its block of the peak Ca2+ channel current, Ipeak, (-)-isradipine inhibited the relative current at the end of the test pulse, the so-called Ilate, normalised to Ipeak (Ilate/Ipeak). This effect was unaffected by the holding potential and revealed distinct kinetics compared to the development of conventional block of Ipeak. 4. When these effects were studied using an alpha1C-b-mutant lacking the high-affinity dihydropyridine binding site, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, both enantiomers blocked Ilate/Ipeak to a similar degree. 5. Our data are discussed within the framework of the 'guarded receptor' and the 'modulated receptor' hypotheses. The very different properties of the block of Ilate/Ipeak compared to those of the conventional high-affinity block of Ipeak suggest the existence of an additional mechanism possibly mediated via a second, distinct binding site. (+info)
(+)-[3H]isradipine and [3H]glyburide bindings to heart and lung membranes from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.
We examined the binding of a 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channel ligand, (+)-[3H]isradipine (PN200-110), and that of an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel ligand, [3H]glyburide, to heart, lung and brain membranes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats made pulmonary hypertensive by monocrotaline, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. A single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline increased right ventricular systolic pressure, a measure of pulmonary arterial pressure, and the thickness of the right ventricular free wall in 3 to 4 weeks. The (+)-[3H]PN200-110 and [3H]glyburide binding site densities (Bmax) were reduced in hypertrophied right ventricles when normalized per unit protein in comparison with those of age-matched control (sham) rats, whereas the values of the dissociation constant (Kd) of both ligands bound to the hypertrophied right ventricle were not significantly changed. The [3H]PN200-110 binding to the lung membranes of the monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats was increased. The results indicate that the change in the binding of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+ and K(ATP) channel ligands to heart membranes may contribute to the pathological alteration of cardiopulmonary structure and functions in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline. (+info)