BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.
A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells. (+info)
Contributions of K+:Cl- cotransport and Na+/K+-ATPase to basolateral ion transport in malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.
Mechanisms of Na+ and K+ transport across the basolateral membrane of isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster were studied by examining the effects of ion substitution and putative inhibitors of specific ion transporters on fluid secretion rates, basolateral membrane potential and secreted fluid cation composition. Inhibition of fluid secretion by [(dihydroindenyl)oxy]alkanoic acid (DIOA) and bumetanide (10(-)4 mol l-1) suggested that a K+:Cl- cotransporter is the main route for K+ entry into the principal cells of the tubules. Differences in the effects of bumetanide on fluxes of K+ and Na+ are inconsistent with effects upon a basolateral Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter. Large differences in electrical potential across apical (>100 mV, lumen positive) and basolateral (<60 mV, cell negative) cell membranes suggest that a favourable electrochemical gradient for Cl- entry into the cell may be used to drive K+ into the cell against its electrochemical gradient, via a DIOA-sensitive K+:Cl- cotransporter. A Na+/K+-ATPase was also present in the basolateral membrane of the Malpighian tubules. Addition of 10(-)5 to 10(-)3 mol l-1 ouabain to unstimulated tubules depolarized the basolateral potential, increased the Na+ concentration of the secreted fluid by 50-73 % and increased the fluid secretion rate by 10-19 %, consistent with an increased availability of intracellular Na+. We suggest that an apical vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and a basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase are both stimulated by cyclic AMP. In cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules, K+ entry is stimulated by the increase in the apical membrane potential, which drives K+:Cl- cotransport at a faster rate, and by the stimulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Fluid secretion by cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules was reduced by 26 % in the presence of ouabain, suggesting that the Na+/K+-ATPase plays a minor role in K+ entry into the tubule cells. Malpighian tubules secreted a Na+-rich (150 mmol l-1) fluid at high rates when bathed in K+-free amino-acid-replete saline (AARS). Secretion in K+-free AARS was inhibited by amiloride and bafilomycin A1, but not by bumetanide or hydrochlorothiazide, which inhibit Na+:Cl- cotransport. There was no evidence for a Na+ conductance in the basolateral membrane of unstimulated or cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules. Possible mechanisms of Na+ entry into the tubule cells include cotransport with organic solutes such as amino acids and glucose. (+info)
Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases.
Coronatine, syringomycin, syringopeptin, tabtoxin, and phaseolotoxin are the most intensively studied phytotoxins of Pseudomonas syringae, and each contributes significantly to bacterial virulence in plants. Coronatine functions partly as a mimic of methyl jasmonate, a hormone synthesized by plants undergoing biological stress. Syringomycin and syringopeptin form pores in plasma membranes, a process that leads to electrolyte leakage. Tabtoxin and phaseolotoxin are strongly antimicrobial and function by inhibiting glutamine synthetase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase, respectively. Genetic analysis has revealed the mechanisms responsible for toxin biosynthesis. Coronatine biosynthesis requires the cooperation of polyketide and peptide synthetases for the assembly of the coronafacic and coronamic acid moieties, respectively. Tabtoxin is derived from the lysine biosynthetic pathway, whereas syringomycin, syringopeptin, and phaseolotoxin biosynthesis requires peptide synthetases. Activation of phytotoxin synthesis is controlled by diverse environmental factors including plant signal molecules and temperature. Genes involved in the regulation of phytotoxin synthesis have been located within the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters; however, additional regulatory genes are required for the synthesis of these and other phytotoxins. Global regulatory genes such as gacS modulate phytotoxin production in certain pathovars, indicating the complexity of the regulatory circuits controlling phytotoxin synthesis. The coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters have been intensively characterized and show potential for constructing modified polyketides and peptides. Genetic reprogramming of peptide and polyketide synthetases has been successful, and portions of the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters could be valuable resources in developing new antimicrobial agents. (+info)
Activities of sordarins in murine histoplasmosis.
Sordarins are new antifungals which inhibit fungal protein synthesis by blocking elongation factor 2. Three compounds were evaluated in a murine model of histoplasmosis. Immune-competent mice were infected intravenously with 10(6) to 10(8) CFU of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells. Mice were treated either orally with sordarins or fluconazole from day 2 through 8 after infection or intraperitoneally with amphotericin B during the same period. Protection was measured by increased rates of survival for 30 days after infection or reduction of lung or kidney tissue counts 9 days after infection. All three of the antifungal drugs tested were protective compared with controls. Sordarins were effective at doses as low as 2 mg/kg of body weight/day. This novel class of drugs compared favorably with amphotericin B and fluconazole for the treatment of histoplasmosis. (+info)
Sordarin inhibits fungal protein synthesis by blocking translocation differently to fusidic acid.
Sordarin derivatives are selective inhibitors of fungal protein synthesis, which specifically impair elongation factor 2 (EF-2) function. We have studied the effect of sordarin on the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of EF-2 from Candida albicans in the absence of any other component of the translation system. The effect of sordarin turned out to be dependent both on the ratio of ribosomes to EF-2 and on the nature of the ribosomes. When the amount of EF-2 exceeded that of ribosomes sordarin inhibited the GTPase activity following an inverted bell-shaped dose-response curve, whereas when EF-2 and ribosomes were in equimolar concentrations sordarin yielded a typical sigmoidal dose-dependent inhibition. However, when ricin-treated ribosomes were used, sordarin stimulated the hydrolysis of GTP. These results were compared with those obtained with fusidic acid, showing that both drugs act in a different manner. All these data are consistent with sordarin blocking the elongation cycle at the initial steps of translocation, prior to GTP hydrolysis. In agreement with this conclusion, sordarin prevented the formation of peptidyl-[(3)H]puromycin on polysomes from Candida albicans. (+info)
Differential induction of plant volatile biosynthesis in the lima bean by early and late intermediates of the octadecanoid-signaling pathway.
Plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. The signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) after treatment with the macromolecular elicitor cellulysin. Within this pathway lima bean possesses at least two different biologically active signals that trigger different biosynthetic activities. Early intermediates of the pathway, especially 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (PDA), are able to induce the biosynthesis of the diterpenoid-derived 4,8, 12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene. High concentrations of PDA result in more complex patterns of additional volatiles. JA, the last compound in the sequence, lacks the ability to induce diterpenoid-derived compounds, but is highly effective at triggering the biosynthesis of other volatiles. The phytotoxin coronatine and amino acid conjugates of linolenic acid (e.g. linolenoyl-L-glutamine) mimic the action of PDA, but coronatine does not increase the level of endogenous JA. The structural analog of coronatine, the isoleucine conjugate of 1-oxo-indanoyl-4-carboxylic acid, effectively mimics the action of JA, but does not increase the level of endogenous JA. The differential induction of volatiles resembles previous findings on signal transduction in mechanically stimulated tendrils of Bryonia dioica. (+info)
Aspirin and salicylic acid do not inhibit methyl jasmonate-inducible expression of a gene for ornithine decarboxylase in tobacco BY-2 cells.
Similar to the prostanoid-mediated inflammatory response in mammals, jasmonate-mediated wound response in plant leaves is inhibited by salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylate (aspirin). In tobacco BY-2 cells, expression of the gene for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) involved in putrescine synthesis is rapidly inducible by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). A nuclear gene for ODC isolated from tobacco, gNtODC-1, was an intron-less gene and MeJA induced the expression of a GUS fusion gene with the gNtODC-1 promoter in transformed tobacco cells. Although SA alone did not induce the expression, 0.2 to 20 microM SA increased the MeJA-induced expression of the fusion gene to about two-fold. A similar increase was observed with aspirin but not with 3- or 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. SA at concentrations up to 200 microM did not inhibit the MeJA-induction of mRNAs for the GUS fusion gene and the endogenous gene for ODC. (+info)
In vitro pharmacodynamic parameters of sordarin derivatives in comparison with those of marketed compounds against Pneumocystis carinii isolated from rats.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia remains one of the most serious complications of immunosuppressed patients. In this study, the in vitro pharmacodynamic parameters of four sordarin derivatives (GM 191519, GM 237354, GM 193663, and GM 219771) have been evaluated by a new quantitative approach and compared with the commercially available drugs pentamidine, atovaquone, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). In vitro activities and in vivo therapeutic efficacies of sordarin derivatives against P. carinii were also evaluated. In vitro activity was determined by the broth microdilution technique, comparing the total number of microorganisms in treated and drug-free cultures by using Giemsa staining. The in vitro maximum effect (E(max)), the drug concentrations to reach 50% of E(max) (EC(50)), and the slope of the dose-response curve were then estimated by the Hill equation (E(max) sigmoid model). Sordarin derivatives were the most potent agents against P. carinii, with EC(50)s of 0.00025, 0.0007, 0.0043, and 0. 025 microg/ml for GM 191519, GM 237354, GM 193663, and GM 219771, respectively. The EC(50)s of pentamidine, atovaquone, and TMP-SMX were 0.025, 0.16, and 26.7/133.5 microg/ml, respectively. The results obtained with this approach showed GM 237354 and GM 191519 to be approximately 35- and 100-fold more active in vitro than pentamidine, the most active marketed compound. All sordarin derivatives tested were at least 5,000-fold more active in vitro than TMP-SMX. The three sordarin derivatives tested in vivo-GM 191519, GM 237354, and GM 219771-showed a marked therapeutic efficacy, defined as reduction of cyst forms per gram of lung. GM 191519 was the most potent (daily dose reducing 50% of the P. carinii burden in the lungs [ED(50)], 0.05 mg/kg/day) followed by GM 237354 and GM 219771 (ED(50)s, 0.30 and 0.49 mg/kg/day, respectively). Good agreement between in vitro parameters and in vivo outcome was obtained when P. carinii pneumonia in rats was treated with sordarin derivatives. (+info)