Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus.
Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis. (+info)
Raf-1 is activated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB203580.
SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imi dazole) is widely used as a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report that SB203580 activates the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 in quiescent smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The concentrations of SB203580 required lie above those necessary to inhibit p38 MAPK and we were unable to detect basal levels of active p38 MAPK. SB203580 does not directly activate Raf-1 in vitro, and fails to activate Ras, MEK, and ERK in intact cells. In vitro, however, SB203580-stimulated Raf-1 activates MEK1 in a coupled assay. We conclude that activation of Raf-1 by SB203580 is not mediated by an inhibition of p38 MAPK, is Ras-independent, and is uncoupled from MEK/ERK signaling. (+info)
An inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase protects neonatal cardiac myocytes from ischemia.
Cellular ischemia results in activation of a number of kinases, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); however, it is not yet clear whether p38 MAPK activation plays a role in cellular damage or is part of a protective response against ischemia. We have developed a model to study ischemia in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. In this model, two distinct phases of p38 MAPK activation were observed during ischemia. The first phase began within 10 min and lasted less than 1 h, and the second began after 2 h and lasted throughout the ischemic period. Similar to previous studies using in vivo models, the nonspecific activator of p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, anisomycin, protected cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury, decreasing the release of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase by approximately 25%. We demonstrated, however, that a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB 203580, also protected cardiac myocytes against extended ischemia in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect was seen even when the inhibitor was present during only the second, sustained phase of p38 MAPK activation. We found that ischemia induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and that SB 203580 reduced activation of caspase-3, a key event in apoptosis. These results suggest that p38 MAPK induces apoptosis during ischemia in cardiac myocytes and that selective inhibition of p38 MAPK could be developed as a potential therapy for ischemic heart disease. (+info)
In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog.
1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects. (+info)
p38 but not p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for nitric oxide synthase induction mediated by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -betaI, and -delta are known to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p44/42 and p38 in the LPS effect was studied further. LPS-mediated NO release and the inducible form of NO synthase expression were inhibited by the p38 inhibitor, SB 203580, but not by the MAPK kinase inhibitor, PD 98059. Ten-minute treatment of cells with LPS resulted in the activation of p44/42 MAPK, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Marked or slight activation, respectively, of p44/42 MAPK or p38 was also seen after 10-min treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, but c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation did not occur. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genestein, attenuated the LPS-induced activation of both p44/42 MAPK and p38, whereas the PKC inhibitors, Ro 31-8220 and calphostin C, or long-term treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate resulted in inhibition of p44/42 MAPK activation, but had only a slight effect on p38 activation, indicating that LPS-mediated PKC activation resulted in the activation of p44/42 MAPK. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-specific DNA-protein-binding activity in the nuclear extracts was enhanced by 10-min, 1-h, or 24-h treatment with LPS. Analysis of the proteins involved in NF-kappaB binding showed translocation of p65 from the cytosol to the nucleus after 10-min treatment with LPS. The onset of NF-kappaB activation correlated with the cytosolic degradation of both inhibitory proteins of NF-kappaB, IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta. IkappaB-alpha was resynthesized rapidly after loss (1-h LPS treatment), whereas IkappaB-beta levels were not restored until after 24-h treatment. SB 203580 but not PD 98059 inhibited the LPS-induced stimulation of NF-kappaB DNA-protein binding. Thus, activation of p38 but not p44/42 MAPK by LPS resulted in the stimulation of NF-kappaB-specific DNA-protein binding and the subsequent expression of inducible form of NO synthase and NO release in RAW 264.7 macrophages. (+info)
Conformation-dependent inhibition of gastric H+,K+-ATPase by SCH 28080 demonstrated by mutagenesis of glutamic acid 820.
Gastric H+,K+-ATPase can be inhibited by imidazo pyridines like 2-methyl-8-[phenylmethoxy] imidazo-(1,2a) pyridine 3-acetonitrile (SCH 28080). The drug shows a high affinity for inhibition of K+-activated ATPase and for prevention of ATP phosphorylation. The inhibition by SCH 28080 can be explained by assuming that SCH 28080 binds to both the E2 and the phosphorylated intermediate (E2-P) forms of the enzyme. We observed recently that some mutants, in which glutamic acid 820 present in transmembrane domain six of the catalytic subunit had been replaced (E820Q, E820N, E820A), lost their K+-sensitivity and showed constitutive ATPase activity. This ATPase activity could be inhibited by similar SCH 28080 concentrations as the K+-activated ATPase of the wild-type enzyme. SCH 28080 also inhibited ATP phosphorylation at 21 degrees C of the mutants E820D, E820N, and E820A, although with varying efficacy and affinity. ATP-phosphorylation of mutant E820Q was not inhibited by SCH 28080; in contrast, the phosphorylation level at 21 degrees C was nearly doubled. These findings can be explained by assuming that mutation of Glu820 favors the E1 conformation in the order E820Q >E820A >E820N >wild-type = E820D. The increase in the phosphorylation level of the E820Q mutant can be explained by assuming that during the catalytic cycle the E2-P intermediate forms a complex with SCH 28080. This intermediate hydrolyzes considerably slower than E2-P and thus accumulates. The high tendency of the E820Q mutant for the E1 form is further supported by experiments showing that ATP phosphorylation of this mutant is rather insensitive towards vanadate, inorganic phosphate, and K+. (+info)
Signal transduction triggered by lipid A-like molecules in 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells.
The lipid A (endotoxin) moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits rapid cellular responses from many cell types, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In CD14 transfected 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells, these responses include activation of the MAP kinase homolog, p38, activation of NF-kappaB, and transcription of kappa light chains, leading to the assembly of surface IgM. In this work, we explored the specificity of the response with regard to lipid structure, and the requirement for p38 kinase activity prior to NF-kappaB activation in control and CD14 transfected 70Z/3 (CD14-70Z/3) cells. A p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, was used to block p38 kinase activity in cells. CD14-70Z/3 cells were incubated with 1-50 microM SB203580, and then stimulated with LPS. Nuclear extracts were prepared, and NF-kappaB activation was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SB203580 did not inhibit LPS induced NF-kappaB activation. In addition, LPS failed to activate p38 tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells lacking CD14, in spite of rapid NF-kappaB activation and robust surface IgM production with appropriate higher doses of LPS. LPS stimulation of p38 phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and surface IgM expression were all blocked completely by lipid A-like endotoxin antagonists whether or not CD14 was present. Acidic glycerophospholipids and ceramides did not mimic lipid A-like molecules either as agonists or antagonists in this system. Our data support the hypothesis that lipid A-mediated activation of cells requires stimulation of a putative lipid A sensor that is downstream of CD14, but upstream of p38 and NF-kappaB. (+info)
A chimeric gastric H+,K+-ATPase inhibitable with both ouabain and SCH 28080.
2-Methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3acetonitrile+ ++ (SCH 28080) is a K+ site inhibitor specific for gastric H+,K+-ATPase and seems to be a counterpart of ouabain for Na+,K+-ATPase from the viewpoint of reaction pattern (i.e. reversible binding, K+ antagonism, and binding on the extracellular side). In this study, we constructed several chimeric molecules between H+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunits by using rabbit H+,K+-ATPase as a parental molecule. We found that the entire extracellular loop 1 segment between the first and second transmembrane segments (M1 and M2) and the luminal half of the M1 transmembrane segment of H+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were exchangeable with those of Na+, K+-ATPase, respectively, preserving H+,K+-ATPase activity, and that these segments are not essential for SCH 28080 binding. We found that several amino acid residues, including Glu-822, Thr-825, and Pro-829 in the M6 segment of H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are involved in determining the affinity for this inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that a chimeric H+,K+-ATPase acquired ouabain sensitivity and maintained SCH 28080 sensitivity when the loop 1 segment and Cys-815 in the loop 3 segment of the H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were simultaneously replaced by the corresponding segment and amino acid residue (Thr) of Na+,K+-ATPase, respectively, indicating that the binding sites of ouabain and SCH 28080 are separate. In this H+, K+-ATPase chimera, 12 amino acid residues in M1, M4, and loop 1-4 that have been suggested to be involved in ouabain binding of Na+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are present; however, the low ouabain sensitivity indicates the possibility that the sensitivity may be increased by additional amino acid substitutions, which shift the overall structural integrity of this chimeric H+,K+-ATPase toward that of Na+,K+-ATPase. (+info)