Microdeletion 22q11 and oesophageal atresia.
Oesophageal atresia (OA) is a congenital defect associated with additional malformations in 30-70% of the cases. In particular, OA is a component of the VACTERL association. Since some major features of the VACTERL association, including conotruncal heart defect, radial aplasia, and anal atresia, have been found in patients with microdeletion 22q11.2 (del(22q11.2)), we have screened for del(22q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) in 15 syndromic patients with OA. Del(22q11.2) was detected in one of them, presenting with OA, tetralogy of Fallot, anal atresia, neonatal hypocalcaemia, and subtle facial anomalies resembling those of velocardiofacial syndrome. The occurrence of del(22q11.2) in our series of patients with OA is low (1/15), but this chromosomal anomaly should be included among causative factors of malformation complexes with OA. In addition, clinical variability of del(22q11.2) syndrome is further corroborated with inclusion of OA in the list of the findings associated with the deletion. (+info)
Recurrent hyperparathyroidism occurred in 11 of 295 patients from 10 months to 34 years after an initially successful operation. Seven patients with recurrent hyperparathyroidism had either multiple endocrine adenomatosis type I (MEA) or familial hyperparathyroidism (FHP), one patient had parathyroid cancer, and two patients had renal failure at the time of recurrence. Four of these patients ahd their initial operations elsewhere. Recurrence developed in 33% of patients with MEA or FHP but in only 0.4% of 242 patients without MEA or FHP. The presence of MEA or FHP was known before parathyroid exploration in 18 (86%) of the 21 patients. In patients with MEA or FHP, subtotal parathyroidectomy should be performed if there is more than one gland involved. Other patients should be treated by selective removal of an adenoma because recurrence is rare. Subtotal parathyroidectomy should be reserved for patients with diffuse hyperplasia. (+info)
Effect of rate of calcium reduction and a hypocalcemic clamp on parathyroid hormone secretion: a study in dogs.
BACKGROUND: The parathyroid hormone (PTH) calcium curve is used to evaluate parathyroid function in clinical studies. However, unanswered questions remain about whether PTH secretion is affected by the rate of calcium reduction and how the maximal PTH response to hypocalcemia is best determined. We performed studies in normal dogs to determine whether (a) the rate of calcium reduction affected the PTH response to hypocalcemia and (b) the reduction in PTH values during a hypocalcemic clamp from the peak PTH value observed during the nadir of hypocalcemia was due to a depletion of stored PTH. METHODS: Fast (30 min) and slow (120 min) ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) infusions were used to induce similar reductions in ionized calcium. In the fast EDTA infusion group, serum calcium was maintained at the hypocalcemic 30-minute value for an additional 90 minutes (hypocalcemic clamp). To determine whether the reduction in PTH values during the hypocalcemic clamp represented depletion of PTH stores, three subgroups were studied. Serum calcium was rapidly reduced from established hypocalcemic levels in the fast-infusion group at 30 and 60 minutes (after 30 min of a hypocalcemic clamp) and in the slow-infusion group at 120 minutes. RESULTS: At the end of the fast and slow EDTA infusions, serum ionized calcium values were not different (0.84 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.03 mM), but PTH values were greater in the fast-infusion group (246 +/- 19 vs. 194 +/- 13 pg/ml, P < 0.05). During the hypocalcemic clamp, PTH rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) to value of approximately 60% of the peak PTH value obtained at 30 minutes. A rapid reduction in serum calcium from established hypocalcemic levels at 30 minutes did not stimulate PTH further, but also PTH values did not decrease as they did when a hypocalcemic clamp was started at 30 minutes. At 60 minutes, the reduction in serum calcium increased (P < 0.05) PTH to peak values similar to those before the hypocalcemic clamp. The reduction in serum calcium at 120 minutes in the slow EDTA infusion group increased PTH values from 224 +/- 11 to 302 +/- 30 pg/ml (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that (a) the reduction in PTH values during the hypocalcemic clamp may not represent a depletion of PTH stores. (b) The use of PTH values from the hypocalcemic clamp as the maximal PTH may underestimate the maximal secretory capacity of the parathyroid glands and also would change the analysis of the PTH-calcium curve, and (c) the PTH response to similar reductions in serum calcium may be less for slow than fast reductions in serum calcium. (+info)
Evidence for the promotion of bone mineralization by 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the rat unrelated to the correction of deficiencies in serum calcium and phosphorus.
Concurrent administration of 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1alpha,25-(OH)2-CC] to intact and thyroparathyroidectomized rats treated with ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) prevented or reversed the EHDP-induced inhibition of bone mineralization as measured by changes in epiphyseal plate width and ash content of bone. An analog, 1alpha-droxycholecalciferol, was also effective. Recovery of bone after EHDP treatment was also significantly improved by administration of 1alpha,25-(OH)2-CC as evidenced by enhanced uptake of 45Ca by epiphyseal plates and decreased plate widths. Cholecalciferol (CC), ergocalciferol, dihydrotachysterol2, 5,6-trans-CC, 25-OH-CC, 5,6-Trans-25-OH-CC, and 1alpha24R,25-(OH)3-CC also blocked EHDP-induced epiphyseal plate widening, but required high, pharmacological dose levels. 24R,25- (OH)2-CC was inactive at doses up to 10 microgram/day. Since EHDP-treated rats are not deficient in calcium or phosphate, these data suggest that 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol promoted bone mineralization independently of effects upon the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate. (+info)
Calcitonin is a major regulator for the expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase gene in normocalcemic rats.
Regulation of vitamin D metabolism has long been examined by using vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic animals. We previously reported that, in a rat model of chronic hyperparathyroidism, expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA was markedly increased in renal proximal convoluted tubules. It is believed that the major regulator for the expression of renal CYP27B1 is parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, in the normocalcemic state, the mechanism to regulate the renal CYP27B1 gene could be different, since plasma levels of PTH are very low. In the present study, the effect of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA was investigated in normocalcemic sham-operated rats and normocalcemic thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats generated by either PTH or CaCl2 infusion. A single injection of CT dose-dependently decreased the expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. Concomitantly, CT greatly increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic sham-TPTX rats. CT also increased the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of normocalcemic TPTX rats. Conversion of serum [3H]1alpha,25(OH)2D3 from 25-hydroxy[3H]vitamin D3 in vivo was also greatly increased by the injection of CT into sham-TPTX rats and normocalcemic TPTX rats, but not into hypocalcemic TPTX rats. In contrast, administration of PTH did not induce the expression of CYP27B1 mRNA in the kidney of vitamin D-replete sham-TPTX rats and hypocalcemic TPTX rats. PTH increased the expression of renal CYP27B1 mRNA only in vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic TPTX rats. These results suggest that CT plays an important role in the maintenance of serum 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 under normocalcemic physiological conditions, at least in rats. (+info)
Calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 stimulates calcitonin secretion but selectively targets parathyroid gland Ca(2+) receptor in rats.
N-(3-[2-Chlorophenyl]propyl)-(R)-alpha-methyl-3-methoxybenzylamine (NPS R-568) is an orally active compound that activates Ca(2+) receptors on parathyroid cells and rapidly suppresses plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca(2+) (ED(50), 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively). We now show that increased calcitonin secretion contributes to NPS R-568-induced hypocalcemia. In parathyroidectomized thyroid-intact rats in which normocalcemia was restored by PTH infusion, NPS R-568 rapidly reduced plasma Ca(2+) levels, indicating that decreased PTH secretion was not solely responsible for the hypocalcemia seen in normal animals. NPS R-568 decreased plasma Ca(2+) levels in thyroidectomized parathyroid-intact rats, but the rate of onset of hypocalcemia was slower than in controls. In contrast, NPS R-568 had no effect on plasma Ca(2+) levels in PTH-infused, thyroparathyroidectomized rats, providing evidence that increased calcitonin secretion caused the hypocalcemia in PTH-infused parathyroidectomized rats. NPS R-568 rapidly increased plasma calcitonin levels to a peak at 10 to 20 min after oral dosing (ED(50) 40 mg/kg). NPS R-568 did not affect the rate of disappearance of (45)Ca from blood, indicating that hypocalcemia resulted from decreased influx of Ca(2+) into the circulation and not from increased efflux. This suggests that NPS R-568-induced hypocalcemia resulted solely from reduced efflux of Ca(2+) from bone after increased calcitonin and reduced PTH secretion. Thus, NPS R-568 causes hypocalcemia by activating Ca(2+) receptors on C cells and parathyroid cells; however, NPS R-568 is about 40 times more potent in reducing PTH levels than in increasing calcitonin levels. (+info)
Calciotrophic hormones during experimental hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia in spontaneously diabetic rats.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) concentrations have been found to be decreased in diabetic humans and rats. To investigate further the regulation of plasma Ca in diabetes, first we measured Ca(2+), P, Mg, parathyroid hormone(1-34) (PTH), and total and free 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in male spontaneously diabetic rats 7 and 28 days after the onset of glycosuria. Secondly, we studied changes in the levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in response to hypocalcaemia induced by an i.v. infusion of EGTA (2.5%, wt/vol.) for 24 h, and changes in the levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in response to an i.v. infusion of rat PTH (10 microgram over 24 h) without or with concomitant EGTA infusion (producing hypercalcaemia or normo/hypocalcaemia respectively), in diabetic and control rats. Ca(2+), P, Mg and PTH concentrations remained within the control ranges after 7 and 28 days of glycosuria; 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were decreased after 7, but not after 28, days of glycosuria. PTH concentrations showed a similar rise during EGTA-induced hypocalcaemia in control and diabetic rats compared with saline-infused rats, whereas 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were unchanged in both groups. Total and free 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels were comparably (about 3-fold) increased during PTH, but not during combined PTH and EGTA infusion in control and diabetic rats. Total 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were lower in the diabetic groups infused with saline or PTH than in their respective controls, and there was a similar trend in the PTH+EGTA-infused group; free 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, however, were normal or increased in the diabetic groups, confirming our previous data. The novel finding of this study is that, despite severe insulin deficiency and altered 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, the in vivo response of PTH levels to hypocalcaemia and the in vivo response of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels to PTH in diabetic rats are comparable with those found in nondiabetic rats. (+info)
Hormonal control of calcium homeostasis.
Calcium homeostasis in the extracellular fluid is tightly controlled and defended physiologically. Hypercalcemia always represents considerable underlying pathology and occurs when the hormonal control of calcium homeostasis is overwhelmed. The major hormones that are responsible for normal calcium homeostasis are parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; these hormones control extracellular fluid calcium on a chronic basis. Over- or underproduction of these hormones or the tumor peptide, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, are the major causes of aberrant extracellular fluid calcium concentrations. These hormonal defense mechanisms are reviewed here. (+info)