SLC34A3 mutations in patients with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria predict a key role for the sodium-phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIc in maintaining phosphate homeostasis.
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that was first described in a large consanguineous Bedouin kindred. HHRH is characterized by the presence of hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, radiographic and/or histological evidence of rickets, limb deformities, muscle weakness, and bone pain. HHRH is distinct from other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets in that affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption. We performed a genomewide linkage scan combined with homozygosity mapping, using genomic DNA from a large consanguineous Bedouin kindred that included 10 patients who received the diagnosis of HHRH. The disease mapped to a 1.6-Mbp region on chromosome 9q34, which contains SLC34A3, the gene encoding the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporter NaP(i)-IIc. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a homozygous single-nucleotide deletion (c.228delC) in this candidate gene in all individuals affected by HHRH. This mutation is predicted to truncate the NaP(i)-IIc protein in the first membrane-spanning domain and thus likely results in a complete loss of function of this protein in individuals homozygous for c.228delC. In addition, compound heterozygous missense and deletion mutations were found in three additional unrelated HHRH kindreds, which supports the conclusion that this disease is caused by SLC34A3 mutations affecting both alleles. Individuals of the investigated kindreds who were heterozygous for a SLC34A3 mutation frequently showed hypercalciuria, often in association with mild hypophosphatemia and/or elevations in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. We conclude that NaP(i)-IIc has a key role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. (+info)
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria is caused by mutations in the sodium-phosphate cotransporter gene SLC34A3.
Hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting results from a heterogeneous group of disorders. Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is an autosomal recessive form that is characterized by reduced renal phosphate reabsorption, hypophosphatemia, and rickets. It can be distinguished from other forms of hypophosphatemia by increased serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D resulting in hypercalciuria. Using SNP array genotyping, we mapped the disease locus in two consanguineous families to the end of the long arm of chromosome 9. The candidate region contained a sodium-phosphate cotransporter gene, SLC34A3, which has been shown to be expressed in proximal tubulus cells. Sequencing of this gene revealed disease-associated mutations in five families, including two frameshift and one splice-site mutation. Loss of function of the SLC34A3 protein presumably results in a primary renal tubular defect and is compatible with the HHRH phenotype. We also show that the phosphaturic factor FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), which is increased in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and carries activating mutations in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, is at normal or low-normal serum levels in the patients with HHRH, further supporting a primary renal defect. Identification of the gene mutated in a further form of hypophosphatemia adds to the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and may help to elucidate the interaction of the proteins involved in this pathway. (+info)
Hydrochlorothiazide in CLDN16 mutation.
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is applied in the therapy of familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) caused by claudin-16 (CLDN16) mutation. However, the short-term efficacy of HCT to reduce hypercalciuria in FHHNC has not yet been demonstrated in a clinical trial. METHODS: Four male and four female patients with FHHNC and CLDN16 mutation, under long-standing HCT therapy (0.4-1.2 mg/kg, median 0.9 mg/kg, dose according to calciuria), aged 0.7-22.4 years, were included in a clinical study to investigate the effect of HCT on calciuria. The study design consisted of three periods: continued therapy for 4 weeks, HCT withdrawal for 6 weeks and restart of therapy at the same dose for 4 weeks. Calciuria and magnesiuria were assessed weekly as Ca/creat and Mg/creat ratio, every 2 weeks in 24 h urine, and serum Mg, K and kaliuria (s-Mg, s-K and K/creat) at weeks 0, 6, 10 and 14. The data of each study period were averaged and analysed by Friedman and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Ca/creat was significantly reduced by HCT (median before/at/after withdrawal 0.76/1.24/0.77 mol/mol creat; n = 8, P<0.05). The reduction of Ca/24 h by HCT was not statistically significant (0.13/0.19/0.13 mmol/kg x 24 h; n = 5). Serum Mg (0.51/0.64/0.56 mmol/l; n = 8, P<0.05) and Serum K (3.65/4.35/3.65 mmol/l; n = 8, P<0.05) were significantly higher during withdrawal. However, Mg/creat (0.98/0.90/0.90 mol/mol creat; n = 8), Mg/24 h (0.14/0.12/0.18 mmol/kg x 24h; n = 5) and K/creat (6.3/8.4/6.2 mol/mol creat; n = 8) remained statistically unchanged during withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that HCT is effective in reducing hypercalciuria due to CLDN16 mutation on a short-term basis. However, the efficacy of HCT to attenuate disease progression remains to be elucidated. (+info)
High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.
Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P < 0.05), and both sibling groups had significantly higher values than the unselected study participants (P < 0.001). Urinary sodium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not different among the groups. Although an environmental effect cannot be excluded fully, our findings suggest that the disturbance in calcium metabolism in hypertension and KSD has a genetic basis. (+info)
WNK4 enhances TRPV5-mediated calcium transport: potential role in hypercalciuria of familial hyperkalemic hypertension caused by gene mutation of WNK4.
The epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 serves as a gatekeeper for active Ca(2+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule of the kidney. WNK4, a protein serine/threonine kinase with gene mutations that cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHH), including a subtype with hypercalciuria, is also localized in the distal tubule of the nephron. To understand the role of WNK4 in modulation of Ca(2+) reabsorption, we evaluated the effect of WNK4 on TRPV5-mediated Ca(2+) transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Coexpression of TRPV5 with WNK4 resulted in a twofold increase in TRPV5-mediated Ca(2+) uptake. The increase in Ca(2+) uptake was due to the increase in surface expression of TRPV5. When the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NCC was coexpressed, the effect of WNK4 on TRPV5 was weakened by NCC in a dose-dependent manner. Although the WNK4 disease-causing mutants E562K, D564A, Q565E, and R1185C retained their ability to upregulate TRPV5, the blocking effect of NCC was further strengthened when wild-type WNK4 was replaced by the Q565E mutant, which causes FHH with hypercalciuria. We conclude that WNK4 positively regulates TRPV5-mediated Ca(2+) transport and that the inhibitory effect of NCC on this process may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria of FHH caused by gene mutation in WNK4. (+info)
Renal stone disease: Causes, evaluation and medical treatment.
The purpose of the present review is to provide an update about the most common risk factors or medical conditions associated with renal stone formation, the current methods available for metabolic investigation, dietary recommendations and medical treatment. Laboratory investigation of hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, hypocitraturia, renal tubular acidosis, urinary tract infection and reduction of urinary volume is based on the results of 24-hr urine collection and a spot urine for urinary sediment, culture and pH. Blood analysis for creatinine, calcium and uric acid must be obtained. Bone mineral density has to be determined mainly among hypercalciurics and primary hyperparathyroidism has to be ruled out. Current knowledge does not support calcium restriction recommendation because it can lead to secondary hyperoxaluria and bone demineralization. Reduction of animal protein and salt intake, higher fluid intake and potassium consumption should be implemented. Medical treatments involve the use of thiazides, allopurinol, potassium citrate or other drugs according to the metabolic disturbances. The correction of those metabolic abnormalities is the basic tool for prevention or reduction of recurrent stone formation. (+info)
Elevations in serum and urinary calcium with parathyroid hormone (1-84) with and without alendronate for osteoporosis.
CONTEXT: The effect of PTH therapy on serum and urinary calcium levels and the risk of hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria has not been formally evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in serum and urinary calcium associated with PTH(1-84) therapy in the PaTH trial and the extent to which a defined algorithm resolved the elevated values. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: A total of 178 postmenopausal women were randomized to PTH(1-84) either alone or in combination with alendronate during the first year of the PaTH study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The main outcome measures were fasting serum calcium at baseline and 1, 3, and 12 months and 24-h urinary calcium at baseline and 3 months. RESULTS: In 14% of participants, serum calcium more than 10.5 mg/dl (>2.6 mmol/liter) developed. Following the defined algorithm, 58% of elevated measurements were normal on repeat testing; 38% required discontinuation of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and one necessitated a decrease in PTH injection frequency to normalize serum calcium. One participant developed transient hypercalcemia between study visits and required hospitalization; the episode resolved with iv hydration and PTH discontinuation. Baseline characteristics associated with the development of hypercalcemia were serum calcium [relative hazards = 1.9 per 0.5 mg/dl (0.12 mmol/liter); 95% confidence interval = 1.1-3.2] and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [relative hazard = 1.9 per 10 pg/ml (26 pmol/liter); 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.1]. Fifteen women (8%) developed hypercalciuria [urinary calcium > 400 mg (100 mmol)/24 h or calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.4]; 80% of cases resolved after discontinuing calcium and vitamin D, 13% without intervention, and one after PTH injection frequency was decreased. Higher baseline urinary calcium excretion was associated with development of hypercalciuria [relative hazard = 1.5 per 50 mg/d (12.5 mmol/d); 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.0]. Proportions of patients with elevated serum and urinary calcium were similar on single and combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of episodic hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria in the PaTH trial was 21%. Episodes were generally mild, and nearly all cases resolved spontaneously or with discontinuation of calcium and vitamin D. The algorithms used to address hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria in the PaTH trial proved effective in safely resolving clinical episodes of increased urinary or serum calcium and might therefore be helpful to clinicians caring for patients on PTH. (+info)
Incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis affects growth in children.
BACKGROUND: Incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis (idRTA) is recognized as an underlying aetiology in recurrent nephrolithiasis. Until the recently reported high prevalence of idRTA in adults with osteoporosis, the effect of idRTA on skeletal parameters was not known. We hypothesize that idRTA has a potential to affect height in the paediatric population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the children with posterior urethral valves (PUV), with normal estimated glomerular filtration rates, were evaluated for idRTA and complete dRTA. The idRTA evaluation was done by short ammonium chloride acidification test. The height standard deviation scores (SDS) in the idRTA group were compared with PUV children without dRTA, with complete dRTA, and to age and gender matched controls with no renal issue (n = 50). RESULTS: The idRTA group (n = 17) manifested a significantly lower mean height SDS (-1.94 +/- 0.41 vs -0.46 +/- 0.28; P < 0.001) and a higher short stature prevalence (height SDS below 2) (18% vs 0; P = 0.06) as compared with those without dRTA (n = 23). The matched controls showed a significantly higher height SDS as compared with the idRTA group (-0.39 +/- 0.25 vs -1.94 +/- 0.41; P < 0.001). As compared with the complete dRTA group (n = 9), the children with idRTA did have significantly higher height SDS (-1.94 +/- 0.41 vs -5.31 +/- 1.95; P = 0.002), and a lower short stature prevalence (18% vs 78%; P = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, dRTA was significantly associated with the height SDS (= -0.88; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete dRTA affects height in children. This observation needs validation in longitudinal studies. (+info)