Distinct and combined vascular effects of ACE blockade and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in hypertensive subjects.
Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are frequently associated with elevated sympathetic activity. Both are independent cardiovascular risk factors and both affect endothelium-mediated vasodilation. To identify the effects of cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive treatments on vascular reactivity and vasodilative capacity, we studied 30 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. They received placebo for 4 weeks, either enalapril or simvastatin for 14 weeks, and, finally, both medications for an additional 14 weeks. Postischemic forearm blood flow (MFBF) and minimal vascular resistance (mFVR) were used as indices of vasodilative capacity and structural vascular damage, respectively. Total (resting-stress-recovery phases) cardiovascular (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) and regional hemodynamic (FBF and FVR) reactivity to stressful stimuli were calculated as area-under-the-curve (auc) (valuextime). Compared with baseline levels, simvastatin reduced total (TOT-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.27 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 1.33 mmol/L, P<0.001, respectively). Enalapril also reduced TOT-C and LDL-C (0.6 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.58 mmol/L, P<0.05, respectively). MFBF was increased substantially by both treatments (P<0.001). Enalapril had a greater effect (-1.7 arbitrary units (AU), P<0.001) than simvastatin (-0.6 AU, P<0.05) on mFVR. During stress, FBF increased more with enalapril (4.4 FBFxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (1.8 FBFxminutes, P<0.01). Conversely, FVR stress response was reduced more with enalapril (9.1 FVRxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (2.9 FVRxminutes, P<0.01). During combination treatment, a significant (0.001>P<0.05) additive effect on hypercholesterolemia, structural vascular damage, BP, and FVR was shown. The findings suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces a larger reduction than HMG-CoA reductase blockade in vascular reactivity and structural damage in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. (+info)
Involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-induced cell death in L6 myoblasts.
Our previous studies have shown that the HMG-CoA reductase (HCR) inhibitor (HCRI), simvastatin, causes myopathy in rabbits and kills L6 myoblasts. The present study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HCRI-induced cell death. We have demonstrated that simvastatin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins within 10 min. These phosphorylations were followed by apoptosis, as evidenced by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and by morphological changes detected with Nomarski optics. Simvastatin-induced cell death was prevented by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The MTT assay revealed that the addition of mevalonic acid into the culture medium partially inhibited simvastatin-induced cell death. Thus, these results suggested that protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway mediating the HCRI-induced death of myoblasts. (+info)
Insulin and TSH promote growth in size of PC Cl3 rat thyroid cells, possibly via a pathway different from DNA synthesis: comparison with FRTL-5 cells.
In the rat thyroid cell lines PC Cl3, FRTL- 5 and WRT, proliferation is mainly regulated by insulin or IGF, and TSH. However, the mechanism regulating cell mass doubling prior to division is still unknown. Our laboratory has shown that in dog thyroid cells insulin promotes growth in size while TSH in the presence of insulin triggers DNA replication. In the absence of insulin, TSH has no effect on cell growth. In this report we investigated insulin action on both cell mass and DNA synthesis and its modulation by TSH and insulin in PC Cl3 and FRTL-5 cells. In PC Cl3 cells, insulin activated not only DNA synthesis but also protein synthesis and accumulation. Although TSH potentiated the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by insulin, enhancement of protein synthesis by both agents was additive. All TSH effects were reproduced by forskolin. Similar effects were also obtained in FRTL-5 cells. This suggests that insulin and TSH, via cAMP, modulate both growth in size and DNA replication in these cell lines. Lovastatin, which blocks 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, decreased the induction of DNA synthesis, but not of protein synthesis induced by insulin or TSH in PC Cl3 cells. In FRTL-5 cells, lovastatin reduced protein and DNA synthesis stimulated by insulin but not TSH-induced protein synthesis. Taking these data together, we propose that insulin and/or TSH both modulate cell mass doubling and DNA synthesis in these cell lines, presumably via different pathways, and that there are at least two pathways which regulate growth in size in FRTL-5 thyroid cells: one triggered by insulin, which is lovastatin sensitive, and the other activated by TSH, which is not sensitive to lovastatin. (+info)
In vitro effects of simvastatin on tubulointerstitial cells in a human model of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity.
To investigate the possibility that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMGCoA) reductase inhibitors ameliorate renal disease via direct effects on the tubulointerstitium, primary cultures of human proximal tubule cells (PTC) and renal cortical fibroblasts (CF) were exposed for 24 h to simvastatin (0.1-10 micromol/l) under basal conditions and in the presence of 1,000 ng/ml of cyclosporin (CsA), which we have previously shown to promote in vitro interstitial matrix accumulation at least partially via activation of local cytokine networks. Simvastatin, in micromolar concentrations, engendered cholesterol-independent inhibition of CF and PTC thymidine incorporation and cholesterol-dependent suppression of PTC apical Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) (ethylisopropylamiloride-sensitive apical 22Na+ uptake). Similarly, CF secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 were depressed, whereas CF collagen synthesis ([3H]proline incorporation) and PTC secretion of the fibrogenic cytokines, transforming growth factor-beta1, and platelet-derived growth factor were unaffected. A lower concentration (0.1 micromol/l) of simvastatin did not affect any of the above parameters under basal conditions but completely prevented CsA-stimulated CF collagen synthesis (control, 6.6 +/- 0.6; CsA, 8.3 +/- 0.6; CsA+simvastatin, 6.2 +/- 0.5%; P < 0.05) and IGF-I secretion (89.5 +/- 16.6, 204.7 +/- 57.0, and 94.6 +/- 22.3 ng. mg protein-1. day-1, respectively; P < 0.05). The results suggest that simvastatin exerts direct cholesterol-dependent and -independent effects on the human kidney tubulointerstitium. HMGCoA reductase inhibitors may ameliorate interstitial fibrosis complicating CsA therapy via direct actions on human renal cortical fibroblasts. (+info)
Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells.
gamma-Tocotrienol (gamma-T3), a naturally occurring analog of tocopherol (vitamin E), has been shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect in animals and humans. Unlike tocopherol, it has also been shown to reduce plasma apoB levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism of action of gamma-T3 on hepatic modulation of apoB production using cultured HepG2 cells as the model system. HepG2 cells preincubated with gamma-T3 were initially shown to inhibit the rate of incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a maximum 86+/-3% inhibition at 50 micromol/L observed within 6 hours. gamma-T3, on the other hand, had no significant effect on the uptake of [14C]glycerol into pools of cellular triacylglycerol and phospholipid relative to untreated control. The rate of apoB synthesis and secretion was then studied by an [35S]methionine pulse-labeling experiment and quantified by immunoprecipitating apoB on chasing up to 3 hours. An average reduction of 24+/-3% in labeled apoB in the media was apparent with gamma-T3 despite a 60+/-2% increase in apoB synthesis. Fractionation of secreted apoB revealed a relatively denser lipoprotein particle, suggesting a less stable particle. Using a digitonin-permeabilized HepG2 cell system, the effects of gamma-T3 on apoB translocation and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum were further investigated. The generation of a specific N-terminal 70-kDa proteolytic fragment proved to be a sensitive measure of the rate of apoB translocation and degradation. The abundance of this fragment increased significantly in gamma-T3-treated cells relative to untreated control cells (50+/-21%) after 2 hours of chase. In addition, the presence of gamma-T3 resulted in an average decrease of 64+/-8% in intact apoB. Taken together, the data suggest that gamma-T3 stimulates apoB degradation possibly as the result of decreased apoB translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apoB into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. (+info)
Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship.
Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past. (+info)
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluvastatin for prevention of restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty; final results of the fluvastatin angiographic restenosis (FLARE) trial.
BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors competitively inhibit biosynthesis of mevalonate, a precursor of non-sterol compounds involved in cell proliferation. Experimental evidence suggests that fluvastatin may, independent of any lipid lowering action, exert a greater direct inhibitory effect on proliferating vascular myocytes than other statins. The FLARE (Fluvastatin Angioplasty Restenosis) Trial was conceived to evaluate the ability of fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily to reduce restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either placebo or fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily beginning 2-4 weeks prior to planned PTCA and continuing after a successful PTCA (without the use of a stent), to follow-up angiography at 26+/-2 weeks. Clinical follow-up was completed at 40 weeks. The primary end-point was angiographic restenosis, measured by quantitative coronary angiography at a core laboratory, as the loss in minimal luminal diameter during follow-up. Clinical end-points were death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery or re-intervention, up to 40 weeks after PTCA. RESULTS: Of 1054 patients randomized, 526 were allocated to fluvastatin and 528 to placebo. Among these, 409 in the fluvastatin group and 427 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, having undergone a successful PTCA after a minimum of 2 weeks of pre-treatment. At the time of PTCA, fluvastatin had reduced LDL cholesterol by 37% and this was maintained at 33% at 26 weeks. There was no difference in the primary end-point between the treatment groups (fluvastatin 0.23+/-0.49 mm vs placebo 0.23+/-0.52 mm, P=0.95) or in the angiographic restenosis rate (fluvastatin 28%, placebo 31%, chi-square P=0.42), or in the incidence of the composite clinical end-point at 40 weeks (22.4% vs 23.3%; logrank P=0.74). However, a significantly lower incidence of total death and myocardial infarction was observed in six patients (1.4%) in the fluvastatin group and 17 (4.0%) in the placebo group (log rank P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Treatment with fluvastatin 80 mg daily did not affect the process of restenosis and is therefore not indicated for this purpose. However, the observed reduction in mortality and myocardial infarction 40 weeks after PTCA in the fluvastatin treated group has not been previously reported with statin therapy. Accordingly, a priori investigation of this finding is indicated and a new clinical trial with this intention is already underway. (+info)
Effect of inhibition of cholesterol synthetic pathway on the activation of Ras and MAP kinase in mesangial cells.
Intermediary metabolites of cholesterol synthetic pathway are involved in cell proliferation. Lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, blocks mevalonate synthesis, and has been shown to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation associated with diverse glomerular diseases. Since inhibition of farnesylation and plasma membrane anchorage of the Ras proteins is one suggested mechanism by which lovastatin prevents cellular proliferation, we investigated the effect of lovastatin and key mevalonate metabolites on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and Ras in murine glomerular mesangial cells. The preincubation of mesangial cells with lovastatin inhibited the activation of MAP kinase stimulated by either FBS, PDGF, or EGF. Mevalonic acid and farnesyl-pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol or LDL, significantly prevented lovastatin-induced inhibition of agonist-stimulated MAP kinase. Lovastatin inhibited agonist-induced activation of Ras, and mevalonic acid and farnesylpyrophosphate antagonized this effect. Parallel to the MAP kinase and Ras data, lovastatin suppressed cell growth stimulated by serum, and mevalonic acid and farnesylpyrophosphate prevented lovastatin-mediated inhibition of cellular growth. These results suggest that lovastatin, by inhibiting the synthesis of farnesol, a key isoprenoid metabolite of mevalonate, modulates Ras-mediated cell signaling events associated with mesangial cell proliferation. (+info)