The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation. (+info)
Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases.
Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established. (+info)
Utility of ultrasound of the upper urinary tract in elderly men with indicators of obstructive symptoms or abnormal flow: how often can silent hydronephrosis be detected in general practice?
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While the prevalence of hydronephrosis is very low in obduction studies, a prevalence of 3-13% is reported for patients with an obstruction who are listed for prostatectomy. In order to evaluate the usefulness of transabdominal ultrasound in primary care, we determined the occurrence of hydronephrosis in males with symptoms of urinary obstruction in a general practice setting. METHOD: A micturition questionnaire (a modified Boyarsky) was sent to all men of 55 years or more who were registered in 10 general practices in Maastricht, and was followed by an examination at their general practice. Men with obstructive symptoms and/or with a free-flow abnormality were examined in the hospital with transabdominal ultrasound in order to detect dilatation of the upper urinary tract. This ultrasound was repeated approximately 15 months later. RESULTS: At the first measurement, none of the examined men (n = 178) had hydronephrosis, and this was still the case for 94 men 15 months later. CONCLUSION: Renal ultrasound is not necessary in general practice for men with uncomplicated obstructive complaints. (+info)
Systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis.
We describe a case of hydronephrosis as a result of retroperitoneal fibrosis in a patient who had previous sclerosing lobulitis of the breast. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported association between these two conditions in the english literature. We presume these conditions are linked and unify them under the general heading of systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis. (+info)
Resistive indices in the evaluation of infants with obstructive and nonobstructive pyelocaliectasis.
Diagnosing obstructive uropathy by renal resistive indices calculated from duplex Doppler sonographic waveforms has been supported as well as challenged in the radiology literature relating to adults. Despite reports of normally higher resistive indices in children as compared to adults, two studies have documented high sensitivity and specificity of renal Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy in children, using the same discriminatory criterion of a resistive index of 0.7 or greater as used in adults. We evaluated 43 infants with significant or bilateral pyelocaliectasis secondary to both obstructive and unobstructive uropathy and found no significant difference in the mean resistive indices or the mean difference in resistive indices of two kidneys in one patient. We conclude that Doppler sonography in infants has no value in differentiating obstructive from nonobstructive pyelocaliectasis. (+info)
Gastroschisis associated with bladder evisceration complicated by hydronephrosis presenting antenatally.
We report here a case of gastroschisis associated with bladder evisceration and complicated by rapidly developing hydronephrosis diagnosed antenatally. The timing of delivery was determined by the hydronephrosis, associated bowel dilatation and polyhydramnios. The case highlights the need for continuing ultrasonographic surveillance of fetuses with gastroschisis to identify further associated complications which were hitherto absent but whose presence may influence the timing of delivery and neonatal care. (+info)
Two cases of metastatic bladder cancers showing diffuse thickening of the bladder wall.
Metastatic bladder cancer showing diffuse thickening of the bladder wall is very rare. We report two cases of metastatic bladder cancer arising from a stomach cancer and acute lymphocytic leukemia. Hydronephrosis and diffuse thickening of the bladder wall were revealed by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Transurethral biopsy and percutaneous whole wall needle biopsy of the bladder were useful for diagnosis. The possibility of metastasis or recurrence of prior and other malignancies should therefore be considered when the clinical features described here are encountered. (+info)
Sonographic diagnosis of ureteral tumors.
We present our experience with transabdominal ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral tumors. During the years 1989 to 1998, 16 patients were diagnosed as having ureteral tumors. These patients were referred for sonographic examination for evaluation of hematuria (seven patients) or flank pain (four patients) or for follow-up screening in patients who were asymptomatic but at high risk for transitional cell carcinoma because of known past bladder tumor (five patients). Ten of these patients underwent intravenous urography examination, three patients had retrograde pyelography, and 11 patients underwent CT scanning. Ultrasonography revealed the ureteral tumors in all 16 patients, which appeared as hypoechoic intraluminal soft tissue. Three tumors were localized in the upper ureter, four in the middle ureter, and nine in the distal ureter. The degree of ureterohydronephrosis was minimal (two cases), mild (five cases), moderate (eight cases), or severe (one case). Eleven tumors caused local widening of the ureteral diameter. On intravenous urography, four patients had a nonfunctioning kidney, three patients had unexplained ureterohydronephrosis, and three patients showed ureteral filling defects, of which only two had irregular contours. On retrograde pyelography, two patients had filling defects (one of which with smooth margins), and one had a truncated ureter. On CT the tumor was clearly demonstrated in only seven patients. We found that ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool in the workup of ureteral tumors. (+info)