Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro.
To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules. (+info)
Flavan-containing cells delimit Frankia-infected compartments in Casuarina glauca nodules.
We investigated the involvement of polyphenols in the Casuarina glauca-Frankia symbiosis. Histological analysis revealed a cell-specific accumulation of phenolics in C. glauca nodule lobes, creating a compartmentation in the cortex. Histochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that these phenolic compounds belong to the flavan class of flavonoids. We show that the same compounds were synthesized in nodules and uninfected roots. However, the amount of each flavan was dramatically increased in nodules compared with uninfected roots. The use of in situ hybridization established that chalcone synthase transcripts accumulate in flavan-containing cells at the apex of the nodule lobe. Our findings are discussed in view of the possible role of flavans in plant-microbe interactions. (+info)
Polyphenol tannic acid inhibits hydroxyl radical formation from Fenton reaction by complexing ferrous ions.
Tannic acid (TA), a plant polyphenol, has been described as having antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activities. Since it is a potent chelator of iron ions, we decided to examine if the antioxidant activity of TA is related to its ability to chelate iron ions. The degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by 6 microM Fe(II) plus 100 microM H2O2 was inhibited by TA, with an I50 value of 13 microM. Tannic acid was over three orders of magnitude more efficient in protecting against 2-deoxyribose degradation than classical *OH scavengers. The antioxidant potency of TA was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration, demonstrating a competition between H2O2 and AT for reaction with Fe(II). On the other hand, the efficiency of TA was nearly unchanged with increasing concentrations of the *OH detector molecule, 2-deoxyribose. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of TA is mainly due to iron chelation rather than *OH scavenging. TA also inhibited 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe(III)-EDTA (iron = 50 microM) plus ascorbate. The protective action of TA was significantly higher with 50 microM EDTA than with 500 microM EDTA, suggesting that TA removes Fe(III) from EDTA and forms a complex with iron that cannot induce *OH formation. We also provided evidence that TA forms a stable complex with Fe(II), since excess ferrozine (14 mM) recovered 95-96% of the Fe(II) from 10 microM TA even after a 30-min exposure to 100-500 microM H2O2. Addition of Fe(III) to samples containing TA caused the formation of Fe(II)n-TA, complexes, as determined by ferrozine assays, indicating that TA is also capable of reducing Fe(III) ions. We propose that when Fe(II) is complexed to TA, it is unable to participate in Fenton reactions and mediate *OH formation. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of TA, described elsewhere, may be explained (at least in part) by its capacity to prevent Fenton reactions. (+info)
Beta-carotene and inhibitors of iron absorption modify iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.
A National fortification program instituted in Venezuela in 1993 reduced iron deficiency and anemia by half in only 1 y. The fortification mixture contained ferrous fumarate, vitamin A and other vitamins. We conducted experiments to characterize ferrous fumarate uptake by Caco-2 cells. Increasing amounts of ferrous fumarate, vitamin A, phytate, tannic acid and beta-carotene were added to incubation mixtures using a range of concentrations that included the molar ratios used in the Venezuelan fortification program. Cells were incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 37 kBq (59)Fe and the compound to be evaluated. They were then rinsed, trypsinized and counted to measure uptake. Effects of ascorbic acid, days in culture and use of flasks or inserts were also evaluated. Optimal conditions for uptake experiments were pH 5.5, in the presence of ascorbic acid and at 16 d in culture. Use of flasks or inserts did not affect uptake. Vitamin A did not significantly increase iron uptake under the experimental conditions employed. However, beta-carotene (6 micromol/L) significantly increased iron uptake compared to no beta-carotene addition (114.9 +/- 6.3 and 47.2 +/- 5.9 pmol/mg cell protein, respectively). Moreover, in the presence of phytates or tannic acid, beta-carotene generally overcame the inhibitory effects of both compounds depending on their concentrations. We conclude that beta-carotene improves iron uptake and overcomes the inhibition by potent inhibitors of iron absorption. These experiments also validated the usefulness of Caco-2 cell model system to evaluate iron metabolism. (+info)
Tumor necrosis factor-induced lethal hepatitis: pharmacological intervention with verapamil, tannic acid, picotamide and K76COOH.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induces hepatitis when injected in human beings or in rodents. The molecular mechanism by which TNF induces hepatic distress remains largely unknown, although induction of apoptosis of hepatocytes appears to be an essential step. In order to increase the therapeutic value of TNF, we have studied the protective activity of several molecules and found that four chemically totally different substances confer significant protection in the model of TNF-induced lethal hepatitis in mice sensitized with D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN), but not in mice sensitized with actinomycin-D (ActD) or against anti-Fas-induced lethal hepatitis. Verapamil, a calcium-channel blocker, tannic acid, picotamide, a thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonist, and K76COOH, an inhibitor, amongst others, of complement, protected significantly against induction of lethality, release of the liver-specific enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and induction of apoptosis in the liver after TNF/GalN, except for K76COOH, which paradoxically increased ALT values after challenge, and which also protected against TNF/GalN in complement-deficient mice. The data suggest that activation of platelets and neutrophils, as well as induction of inflammation occur in the TNF/GalN model, but not in the TNF/ActD or anti-Fas models, in which direct induction of apoptosis of hepatocytes may be more relevant. The protective activity of the drugs may lead to an increase in therapeutic value of TNF. (+info)
Antimutagenicity of the purple pigment, hordeumin, from uncooked barley bran-fermented broth.
The novel purple pigment hordeumin, an anthocyanin-tannin pigment, was produced from barley bran-fermented broth. The mutagenicity or antimutagenicity of hordeumin was investigated according to the Ames method, an indication of the safety of food, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Despite the presence of S-9 mix, hordeumin was not mutagenic. On the other hand, hordeumin effectively decreased a reverse mutation from Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, IQ, and B[a]P. Furthermore, hordeumin also decreased the reverse mutation from dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of grilled beef. (+info)
Self-regulation of intake of polyethylene glycol by sheep fed diets varying in tannin concentrations.
Tannins occur in many plant species, and they often suppress intake by reducing nutrient availability or by causing malaise. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) binds to tannins and may thereby increase the availability of macronutrients and decrease malaise. Supplemental PEG increases intake of tannin-containing plants by sheep, goats, and cattle. Given the strong response to supplemental PEG, we speculated that animals might self-regulate their intake of PEG when offered foods high in tannins. The objective of the first experiment was to determine if the amount of supplemental PEG (0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 g; molecular weight, 3,350) affected intake by lambs of a food (milo-tannin mix) containing 20% quebracho tannin. There was a linear relationship (Y = 272 + 1.2X; R2 = .86; P = .023) between the amount of supplemental PEG ingested and the subsequent intake of milo-tannin food by lambs. The objective of the second experiment was to determine whether lambs self-regulated intake of PEG when fed a ration that contained 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% quebracho tannin and whether they adjusted their intake of PEG when tannin was removed from the diet. There was a positive relationship between the amount of PEG ingested and intake of food and tannin (P = .0001). Lambs fed high-tannin diets ate more PEG than controls (P = .03). Lambs fed the 20% tannin diet ate the most PEG, and controls ate the least PEG. Tannin limited intake of the diets, but PEG attenuated the response to a great degree (P = .065). Immediately after tannin was removed from the ration, lambs that formerly had been fed the 20% tannin ration ate more PEG than lambs fed the other rations (P = .0075). Ten of the lambs (5 from the 20% tannin group, 1 from the 15% tannin, and 2 each from the 10 and 5% groups) continued to eat PEG for 7 d after tannin was removed from their ration. When they were tested again 6 wk after the trial and offered tannin-free diets, their intake of PEG had decreased. (+info)
Isolation of tannin-degrading lactobacilli from humans and fermented foods.
Lactobacilli with tannase activity were isolated from human feces and fermented foods. A PCR-based taxonomic assay revealed that the isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, and L. pentosus. Additional studies on a range of Lactobacillus species from established culture collections confirmed that this enzymatic activity is a phenotypic property common to these three species. (+info)