Low-dose combination therapy as first-line hypertension treatment for blacks and nonblacks.
To assess the efficacy and safety of bisoprolol/6.25-mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), amlodipine, and enalapril in black and nonblack patients, data from two comparative studies were pooled and subgroup analyses performed. Both studies had similar designs and included all three active treatments. The second study also included a placebo group. Subjects (n = 541) with a sitting diastolic blood pressure of 95-114 mmHg were titrated to achieve a diastolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg. The studies included 114 blacks and 427 nonblacks. Results of an intention-to-treat analysis of mean change from baseline after 12 weeks of treatment showed the following: 1) blood pressure was significantly lowered by all three active drugs compared with baseline or placebo; 2) in blacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure than enalapril or placebo, but was not significantly different from amlodipine; 3) in nonblacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reduction of diastolic blood pressure than amlodipine, enalapril, or placebo. The placebo-corrected change in blood pressure was greater for blacks than whites on the bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ combination, but this was not statistically significant. Bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ controlled diastolic blood pressure to < or = 90 mmHg in significantly more patients than enalapril or placebo in blacks and nonblacks. The difference in control rates was not significant versus amlodipine. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar between treatments; however, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ had a lower discontinuation rate due to lack of blood pressure control or adverse experiences in both blacks and nonblacks. (+info)
Drug-induced hyponatraemia in psychogenic polydipsia.
Two patients with psychogenic polydipsia developed hyponatraemia, one in association with administration of hydrochlorothiazide and the other with that of tolbutamide. It is suggested that the increased fluid intake in such patients may make them more susceptible to the development of hyponatraemia from thiazide or sulphonylurea compounds. (+info)
Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase accounts for the direct vascular effects of hydrochlorothiazide.
Hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to exert direct vasodilator effects by activation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in human and guinea pig isolated resistance arteries. Since hydrochlorothiazide binds to and inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase and because KCa channel activation is pH sensitive, we investigated the role of intracellular and extracellular carbonic anhydrase in the vascular effects of thiazide diuretics. Small arteries were isolated from guinea pig mesentery and studied by use of a microvascular myograph technique. In some experiments, tone and intracellular pH (pHi) were measured simultaneously with 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)'-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF-AM). Bendroflumethiazide, a thiazide diuretic with minimal inhibitory effects on carbonic anhydrase, had little effect on noradrenaline-induced tone (16+/-8% relaxation) compared with hydrochlorothiazide (74+/-12% relaxation). In contrast to hydrochlorothiazide, the action of bendroflumethiazide was unaffected by 100 nmol/L charybdotoxin, a selective blocker of KCa channels. All inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase relaxed noradrenaline-induced tone in a concentration-dependent manner, and this effect was blocked by charybdotoxin. Hydrochlorothiazide and the inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase failed to relax tone induced by a depolarizing potassium solution. Acetazolamide and hydrochlorothiazide increased pHi by 0.27+/-0.07 and 0.21+/-0.04, respectively, whereas bendroflumethiazide had a much smaller effect: 0.06+/-0.03. The rise in pHi induced by any agent was not inhibited by charybdotoxin. The vasorelaxant effect of hydrochlorothiazide is shared by other inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase, but not bendroflumethiazide, cause intracellular alkalinization, which is associated with KCa channel opening. These data suggest that the vasodilator effect of thiazide diuretics results primarily from inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell carbonic anhydrase, which results in a rise in pHI, leading to KCa channel activation and vasorelaxation. (+info)
Treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterised by the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine in response to arginine vasopressin. The consequences are severe polyuria and polydipsia, often associated with hypertonic dehydration. Intracerebral calcification, seizures, psychosomatic retardation, hydronephrosis, and hydroureters are its sequelae. In this study, four children with NDI were treated with 3 mg/kg/day hydrochlorothiazide and 0.3 mg/kg/day amiloride orally three times a day for up to five years. While undergoing treatment, none of the patients had signs of dehydration or electrolyte imbalance, all showed normal body growth, and there was no evidence of cerebral calcification or seizures. All but one had normal psychomotor development and normal sonography of the urinary tract. However, normal fluid balance was not attainable (fluid intake, 3.8-7.7 l/m2/day; urine output, 2.2-7.4 l/m2/day). The treatment was well tolerated and no side effects could be detected. Prolonged treatment with hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride appears to be more effective and better tolerated than just hydrochlorothiazide. Its efficacy appears to be similar to that of hydrochlorothiazide/indomethacin but without their severe side effects. (+info)
Regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 by diuretics and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis.
In the kidney and colon 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) inactivates cortisol to cortisone, thereby protecting the non-selective mineralocorticoid receptor from cortisol. Deficiency of 11beta-HSD2 results in cortisol-mediated sodium retention and hypertension, suggesting that the physiological regulation of 11beta-HSD2 in mineralocorticoid target tissues may be important in modulating sodium homoeostasis and blood pressure control. Using the human epithelial colon cell line SW-620, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated expression of only 11beta-HSD2 (Km for cortisol 66 nmol/l). Bradykinin (10(-8) to 10(-12) mol/l), frusemide (10(-4) to 10(-9) mol/l), benzamiloride hydrochloride (10(-5) to 10(-10) mol/l) and atrial natriuretic peptide (10(-6) to 10(-10) mol/l) had no effect on 11beta-HSD2 expression. Using a range of concentrations of angiotensin II (2x10(-8) to 2x10(-5) mol/l) a significant reduction in activity was seen but only at supra-physiological concentrations, [e.g. 2x10(-6) mol/l at 4 h pretreatment: 36.7+/-2.0 pmol cortisone. h-1.mg-1 (mean+/-S.E.M.) compared with 45.1+/-1.7 pmol.h-1.mg-1 in control; P<0.05]. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril and trandolapril at 10(-7) mol/l, but not fosinopril, significantly increased 11beta-HSD2 activity after pretreatment for 16 or 24 h (P<0.05-P<0.01 compared with control). No effects were seen at 4 h pretreatment. Hydrochlorothiazide (10(-7) mol/l) significantly decreased 11beta-HSD2 activity (P<0.05 compared with control) at 4 h pretreatment. Commonly used diuretics, atrial natriuretic peptide and physiological concentrations of angiotensin II and bradykinin do not alter 11beta-HSD2 activity. In contrast, a series of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors significantly increase 11beta-HSD2 activity in vitro. This may explain how intrarenal infusions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increase renal sodium excretion independent of circulating concentrations of angiotensin II. The interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and 11beta-HSD2 may be an additional mechanism by which the former can lower blood pressure. (+info)
Optimization of urinary FDG excretion during PET imaging.
Accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) activity in the urine interferes with the visualization of pelvic and, sometimes, abdominal abnormalities. Although this is a major problem, there are few data on the physiological variables affecting FDG urinary excretion that are critical to minimizing urinary FDG interference during PET imaging. METHODS: The excretion of FDG in urine was determined during 90 min in four groups of rats (n = 24) under the following conditions: normal, hydrated, hydrochlorothiazide treated and phlorizin treated. FDG clearance rates were measured in both normal and phlorizin-treated animals and compared with the glomeruler filtration rate measured with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. We measured FDG excretion in 10 patients who had no known renal disease and were undergoing PET scanning (divided into two groups: hydrated and dehydrated) to relate the animal data to humans. RESULTS: The hydrated and phlorizin-treated animals had the highest excretion of FDG (39.68+/-5.00 % injected dose (%ID) and 45.64+/-9.77 %ID, respectively). Animals given the hydrochlorothiazide had the highest urinary volume, but the percentage excreted was comparable with the normal rats. Measurement of the clearance of FDG in animals before and after the administration of phlorizin determined the amount of FDG reabsorbed in the proximal tubules to be 56%+/-9.15%. The hydrated patients had a higher excretion of FDG than dehydrated patients (16.98+/-1.99 %ID versus 14.27+/-1.00 %ID, P < 0.021), and the volume of urine voided was significantly higher (P < 0.020). CONCLUSION: Hydrochlorothiazide increases urine volume without enhancing FDG excretion. The hydration of patients before PET scanning may lead to more FDG reaching the bladder. Reduction of bladder activity by more frequent voiding facilitated by increased urine volume in hydrated patients may be offset by increased delivery of FDG to the bladder. A preferable means of increasing urinary volume without increasing delivery of FDG to the bladder may be the use of a diuretic. (+info)
Effects of aging and antihypertensive treatment on aortic internal diameter in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
The effect of antihypertensive treatment on the development of large-artery remodeling in young animals has been widely studied, but reversal of established changes in older hypertensive animals has been largely ignored, although the latter represents a better paradigm for the human condition. We studied the effect of treatment with captopril plus hydrochlorothiazide, from 3 months onward, on geometry and wall stress of the thoracic aorta of adult (9 months, maturation) and old (15 months, senescence) spontaneously hypertensive rats; normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as controls. At 3 months of age, blood pressure, medial cross-sectional area, and internal diameter were higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In both strains, medial cross-sectional area and lumen diameter increased during maturation; there was little change with senescence. Changes in blood pressure were minor. Because medial hypertrophy failed to compensate for the wider lumen and higher intraluminal pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, medial stress was higher in these rats than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Captopril plus hydrochlorothiazide rapidly lowered blood pressure and medial cross-sectional area. Despite a marked fall in blood pressure, the internal diameter of the thoracic aorta of treated animals was similar to that of untreated animals after 6 months of treatment and started to fall only after the animals had been treated for 1 year. Thus, under treatment with captopril plus hydrochlorothiazide, medial stress remained elevated, even after very-long-term treatment, because medial cross-sectional area was not adapted to internal diameter. We suggest that some changes in large-artery structure associated with hypertension and aging, such as the increase in diameter, take considerable time to regress after blood pressure is lowered, and this may explain why, despite treatment, wall stress remains elevated. (+info)
Fosinopril/hydrochlorothiazide: single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
AIMS: Fosinoprilat, the active product of fosinopril, is eliminated by an hepatic pathway in addition to the renal pathway shared by other angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). This study aimed to determine whether impaired renal function affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). METHODS: The study had a parallel-group design comparing patients with renal impairment and body-mass-index-matched normal controls. The study was done in a University clinic in 13 patients with renal impairment (mean creatinine clearance 55.7+/-15.6 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 ) and 13 age-, sex-, and body-mass-index-matched normal controls (mean creatinine clearance 102.4+/-8.9 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 ). All patients and normal controls received fosinopril sodium 20 mg and HCTZ 12.5 mg as a daily oral administration on days 1-5. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of fosinoprilat and HCTZ were determined from blood and urine samples obtained over 48 h starting on Day 1 (single dose) and Day 5 (steady state): maximum serum concentration (Cmax ), time to maximum serum concentration (tmax ), area under the serum concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC), cumulative urinary excretion (CUE) and the accumulation index (AI; ratio of AUC-day 5/AUC-day 1). Pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured over 24 h on day 1 and over 48 h on day 5: serum ACE activity and arterial blood pressure. RESULTS: Fosinoprilat pharmacokinetic parameters on day 1 in renally impaired vs normal patients: Cmax=387+/-0.19 vs 324+/-0.25 ng ml-1 (P=0.07); tmax=3.5 vs 3.0 h (P=0.58); AUC=3510+/-0.29 vs 2701+/-0.35 ng ml-1 h (P=0. 072); CUE=5.08+/-2.70 vs 7.40+/-2.56% (P=0.009). Fosinoprilat parameters on day 5: Cmax=517+/-0.40 vs 357+/-0.19 ng ml-1 (P=0. 007); tmax=3.0 vs 3.0 h (P >0.99); AUC=4098+/-0.43 vs 2872+/-0.30 ng ml-1 h (P=0.027); CUE=6.81+/-3.53 vs 8.10+/-2.80% (P=0.068). AI=1. 17+/-0.33 vs 1.06+/-0.23 (P=0.29). In both groups ACE inhibition and blood pressure response were similar over 24 h and slightly greater 48 h after last dosing. CONCLUSIONS: In renally impaired subjects fosinopril and HCTZ can be coadministered without undue increases in fosinoprilat concentrations or any clinically significant pharmacodynamic effects. This is probably due to the dual excretory pathways for fosinoprilat. (+info)