The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation.
1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2. (+info)
Metabolic interactions between mibefradil and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: an in vitro investigation with human liver preparations.
AIMS: To determine the effects of mibefradil on the nletabolism in human liver microsomal preparations of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, cerivastatin and fluvastatin. METHODS: Metabolism of the above five statins (0.5, 5 or 10 microM), as well as of specific CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C8/9 marker substrates, was examined in human liver microsomal preparations in the presence and absence of mibefradil (0.1-50 microM). RESULTS: Mibefradil inhibited, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the metabolism of the four statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin) known to be substrates for CYP3A. The potency of inhibition was such that the IC50 values (<1 microM) for inhibition of all of the CYP3A substrates fell within the therapeutic plasma concentrations of mibefradil, and was comparable with that of ketoconazole. However, the inhibition by mibefradil, unlike that of ketoconazole, was at least in part mechanism-based. Based on the kinetics of its inhibition of hepatic testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity, mibefradil was judged to be a powerful mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, with values for Kinactivation, Ki and partition ratio (moles of mibefradil metabolized per moles of enzyme inactivated) of 0.4 min(-1), 2.3 microM and 1.7, respectively. In contrast to the results with substrates of CYP3A, metabolism of fluvastatin, a substrate of CYP2C8/9, and the hydroxylation of tolbutamide, a functional probe for CYP2C8/9, were not inhibited by mibefradil. CONCLUSION: Mibefradil, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, strongly suppressed the metabolism in human liver microsomes of simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin through its inhibitory effects on CYP3A4/5, while the effects of mibefradil on fluvastatin, a substrate for CYP2C8/9, were minimal in this system. Since mibefradil is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, it is anticipated that clinically significant drug-drug interactions will likely ensue when mibefradil is coadministered with agents which are cleared primarily by CYP3A-mediated pathways. (+info)
Characterization of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases involved in the glucuronidation of an antithrombotic thioxyloside in rat and humans.
To investigate the glucuronidation on the hydroxyl group of carbohydrate-containing drugs, the in vitro formation of glucuronides on the thioxyloside ring of the antithrombotic drug, LF 4.0212, was followed in rat and human liver microsomes and with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). The reaction revealed a marked regioselectivity in rat and humans. Human liver microsomes glucuronidated the compound mainly on the 2-hydroxyl position of the thioxyloside ring, whereas rat was able to form glucuronide on either the 2-, 3-, or 4- hydroxyl group of the molecule, although to a lower extent. LF 4.0212 was a much better substrate of human UGT than the rat enzyme (Vmax/Km 30.0 and 0.06 microl/min/mg, respectively). Phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, and clofibrate enhanced the glucuronidation of LF 4.0212 on positions 2, 3, and 4 of the thioxyloside ring, thus indicating that several UGT isoforms were involved in this process. The biosynthesis of the 2-O-glucuronide isomer was catalyzed by the human UGT1A9 and 2B4, but not by UGT1A6 and 2B11. By contrast, the rat liver recombinant UGT1A6 and 2B1 failed to form the 2-O-glucuronide isomers. From all the recombinant UGTs tested, none catalyzed the formation of the 3-O-glucuronide isomer. Interestingly, glucuronidation on the 4-position was found in all the metabolic competent V79 cell lines considered, including the nontransfected V79 cells, suggesting the presence of an endogenous UGT in fibroblasts able to actively glucuronidate the drug. This activity, which was nonsensitive to the inhibitory effect of 7,7,7-triphenylheptanoic acid, a potent UGT inhibitor, could reflect the existence of a different enzyme. (+info)
Differential regulation of apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells by two HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, atorvastatin and simvastatin.
The concept that hepatic cholesterol synthesis regulates hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins remains controversial. The present study was carried out in HepG2 cells to examine the regulation of apoB secretion by the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin. ApoB accumulation in the media was decreased by 24% and 36% at 10 microm (P < 0.02) and 20 microm (P < 0.01) of atorvastatin, respectively. Atorvastatin inhibited HepG2 cell cholesterol synthesis by up to 96% (P < 0.001) and cellular cholesteryl ester (CE) mass by 54% (P < 0.001). Another HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, simvastatin, decreased cellular cholesterol synthesis and CE mass by up to 96% (P < 0.001) and 52% (P < 0.001), respectively. However, in contrast to atorvastatin, simvastatin had no effect on apoB secretion. To characterize the reduction in apoB secretion by atorvastatin (10 microm), pulse-chase experiments were performed and the kinetic data were analyzed by multicompartmental modeling using SAAM II. Atorvastatin had no affect on the synthesis of apoB, however, apoB secretion into the media was decreased by 44% (P = 0.048). Intracellular apoB degradation increased proportionately (P = 0.048). Simvastatin (10 microm) treatment did not significantly alter either the secretion or intracellular degradation of apoB, relative to control. The kinetics of apoB degradation were best described by a rapidly and a slowly turning over degradation compartment. The effect of atorvastatin on apoB degradation was largely confined to the rapid compartment. Neither inhibitor affected apoB mRNA concentrations, however, both significantly increased LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels. Atorvastatin treatment also decreased the mRNA for the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) by 22% (P < 0.02). These results show that atorvastatin decreases apoB secretion, by a mechanism that results in an enhanced intracellular degradation in apoB. (+info)
AA-2414, an antioxidant and thromboxane receptor blocker, completely inhibits peroxide-induced vasoconstriction in the human placenta.
We hypothesized that AA-2414, a novel thromboxane receptor blocker with antioxidant properties, would inhibit peroxide-induced vasoconstriction in the isolated perfused human placental cotyledon. In study 1, placental cotyledons (n = 5) were perfused serially for 20- min intervals with control KrebsRinger-bicarbonate (KRB) buffer, t-butyl hydroperoxide (Px; 100 microM), KRB buffer, and KRB buffer containing Px to which progressively increasing concentrations of AA-2414 were added (1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-4) mol/l). In study 2, placental cotyledons (n = 6) were perfused with control KRB buffer, Px alone, KRB buffer, 1 x 10(-5) mol/l AA-2414 alone, Px plus AA-2414, and Px alone. Compared with control, perfusion with Px significantly increased perfusion pressure, vascular resistance, and the maternal and fetal secretion rates of lipid peroxides, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha. In study 1, AA-2414 + Px produced a dose-response inhibition of Px-induced increases in perfusion pressure, vascular resistance, and maternal secretion of lipid peroxides and TXB2. In study 2, perfusing AA-2414 at a dose of 1 x 10(-5) mol/l completely inhibited Px-induced vasoconstriction and increases in lipid peroxide and TXB2 secretion rates, but only partially inhibited the increase in 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha secretion. We conclude that AA-2414 inhibited peroxide-induced vasoconstriction in the human placenta, as well as peroxide- induced increases in the placental secretion rates of lipid peroxides and thromboxane, but only partially inhibited peroxide-induced increases in the placental secretion rate of prostacyclin. (+info)
Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy compared with angioplasty in stable coronary artery disease. Atorvastatin versus Revascularization Treatment Investigators.
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary revascularization is widely used in improving symptoms and exercise performance in patients with ischemic heart disease and stable angina pectoris. In this study, we compared percutaneous coronary revascularization with lipid-lowering treatment for reducing the incidence of ischemic events. METHODS: We studied 341 patients with stable coronary artery disease, relatively normal left ventricular function, asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate angina, and a serum level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of at least 115 mg per deciliter (3.0 mmol per liter) who were referred for percutaneous revascularization. We randomly assigned the patients either to receive medical treatment with atorvastatin, at 80 mg per day (164 patients), or to undergo the recommended percutaneous revascularization procedure (angioplasty) followed by usual care, which could include lipid-lowering treatment (177 patients). The follow-up period was 18 months. RESULTS: Twenty-two (13 percent) of the patients who received aggressive lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin (resulting in a 46 percent reduction in the mean serum LDL cholesterol level, to 77 mg per deciliter [2.0 mmol per liter]) had ischemic events, as compared with 37 (21 percent) of the patients who underwent angioplasty (who had an 18 percent reduction in the mean serum LDL cholesterol level, to 119 mg per deciliter [3.0 mmol per liter]). The incidence of ischemic events was thus 36 percent lower in the atorvastatin group over an 18-month period (P=0.048, which was not statistically significant after adjustment for interim analyses). This reduction in events was due to a smaller number of angioplasty procedures, coronary-artery bypass operations, and hospitalizations for worsening angina. As compared with the patients who were treated with angioplasty and usual care, the patients who received atorvastatin had a significantly longer time to the first ischemic event (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease, aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is at least as effective as angioplasty and usual care in reducing the incidence of ischemic events. (+info)
Platelet deposition on eroded vessel walls at a stenotic shear rate is inhibited by lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin.
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase are widely used in the treatment of dyslipemias and have shown beneficial effects in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, regression studies with lipid-lowering drugs have not shown significant lesion reduction associated with the improvement in clinical events. Therefore, our objective has been to study whether treatment with a lipid-lowering drug of this family, atorvastatin, could reduce platelet deposition on the damaged vessel wall at different shear stress conditions, simultaneously with retardation of the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Using cholesterol-fed swine as the model, we found that atorvastatin significantly diminished platelet deposition on the mildly damaged vessel wall at high shear rates (50%, P<0.01), but it did not have any effect in preventing platelet deposition triggered by a severely injured vessel wall. Development of coronary lesions was also reduced by treatment. These findings suggest that atorvastatin may prevent platelet attachment to eroded vessels and hence, contribute to reducing the thrombotic risk associated with the erosions of the luminal surface and the platelet-dependent progression of atherosclerotic plaques. (+info)
Inhibition of vasoconstriction by the thromboxane A2 antagonist GR32191B in the human radial artery.
AIMS: The newly revived coronary bypass graft, the radial artery (RA), is more spastic than the internal mammary artery. Thromboxane A2 is a potent vasoconstrictor for arterial grafts. This study was therefore designed to determine whether the specific thromboxane A2 (TP) receptor antagonist, GR32191B, is effective in inhibition of prostanoid or nonprostanoid receptors in the RA. METHODS: The effect of GR32191B was studied in human RA segments, taken from coronary bypass patients, in organ chambers. Two effects of GR32191B were tested: (1) the relaxation induced by GR32191B in the RA precontracted with the TP receptor agonists U46619 and PGF2alpha or nonprostanoid vasoconstrictors (noradrenaline [NA], angiotensin II [AII], and K+ ) and (2) the inhibitory effect of GR32191B on TP receptor agonists and nonprostanoid vasoconstrictors. RESULTS: In U46619 (10 nm, n=7) and PGF2alpha (1 microm, n=7) precontracted RA, GR32191B induced 100% relaxation (10-100 microm ) but not after precontraction with nonprostanoid stimuli (5.8% for K+, 25 mm, n=6, 24.4% for NA, 3 microm, n=8, and 53.2% for AII, 3 nm, n=5) (P<0.001). Treatment with GR32191B (30 nm ) significantly depressed the contraction with U46619 (from 160.1+/-11.0% to 116.8+/-13.1%, P<0. 05) or PGF2alpha (from 91.3+/-12.3% to 42.2+/-9.2%, P<0.01). The contraction was further abolished by 3 microm GR32191B. However, GR32191B at 3 microm did not significantly inhibit the contraction induced by either NA, AII, or K+. CONCLUSIONS: GR32191B is a highly potent and specific TP receptor antagonist for the human RA. It may be particularly useful in inhibiting TXA2-mediated vasoconstriction and therefore in reducing the complications related to vasospasm in this graft. (+info)