A survey of helminth parasites of cats from Saskatoon.
In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp. (+info)
Infections by helminth parasites in "puyenes", Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae, Salmoniformes), from Southern Argentina with special reference to Tylodelphys barilochensis (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).
The occurrence of Tylodelphys barilochensis, Acanthostomoides apophalliformis, Contracaecum sp. and Camallanus corderoi infecting Galaxias maculatus ("puyenes") was quantified for the first time in Lake Nahuel Huapi, southern Argentina. T. barilochensis was recorded in this lake for the first time. The role of G. maculatus population in transmission of parasites to the salmonids is more important for Contracaecum sp. (prevalence 14-34%) and A. apophalliformis (prevalence 30-54%) than for C. corderoi (prevalence 6-8%). The absence of Diphyllobothrium spp. in samples shows that the G. maculatus population does not play any role in the life cycles of these important zoonotic parasites. The sex of the host had no effect on T. barilochensis abundance. Statistical differences in T. barilochensis abundance between "puyenes" of the same size class between sampling stations and positive correlation between prevalence of infected snails and T. barilochensis abundance in fish suggest that different stocks have been sampled. Factors influencing T. barilochensis abundance are discussed. (+info)
A trade-off between energy intake and exposure to parasites in oystercatchers feeding on a bivalve mollusc.
Models of animal dispersion between habitat patches that differ in resource density assume that animals maximize their fitness by maximizing the rate at which they consume resources. How valid is this assumption? Studies on wading birds have been central to the application of dispersion models to predator-prey systems. However, these birds do not always attempt to maximize their rate of energy intake, implying that maximization involves costs as well as benefits. Overwintering oystercatchers feeding on cockles in the Burry Inlet, South Wales, do not consume the larger more energetically profitable cockles even though consuming these prey would increase their rate of energy intake. This paper tests the hypothesis that maximizing energy intake involves a trade-off with exposure to helminth parasites. Cockles are important intermediate hosts for helminth parasites, for which oystercatchers are the definitive host. The helminth intensity of cockles increased significantly with cockle size. A functional response model was used to examine how size selection by the birds influenced energy intake and the ingestion rate of parasites. To maximize energy intake birds should selectively consume the larger size classes, but to minimize the ingestion rate of parasites they should consume the smallest size classes. In the wild, birds selectively consumed intermediate size classes, which could represent a compromise between these conflicting demands. The implications for animal dispersion models are discussed. (+info)
Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.
In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. (+info)
Helminth fauna of carnivores distributed in north-western Tohoku, Japan, with special reference to Mesocestoides paucitesticulus and Brachylaima tokudai.
In the winter of 1998-1999, we collected parasitological data from 54 wild carnivores in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These consisted of 38 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 14 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) and 2 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica). Collected helminth parasites were 11 nematode, 10 trematode, 3 cestode, and a single acanthocephalan species, including 5 hitherto unknown species for this research area or the mainland of Japan (Honshu). Mesocestoides paucitesticulus was for the first time recorded from martens as well as from carnivores distributed in Honshu. Brachylaima tokudai originally recorded from Urotrichus talpoides in the central part of Honshu was for the first time found from a raccoon dog. (+info)
Helminthic transmission and isolation of Ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of Potomac horse fever, by using trematode stages from freshwater stream snails.
We report successful helminthic transmission of Ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of Potomac horse fever, using trematode stages collected from Juga yrekaensis snails. The ehrlichial agent was isolated from the blood of experimentally infected horses by culture in murine monocytic cells and identified as E. risticii ultrastructurally and by characterization of three different genes. (+info)
Drug resistance in human helminths: current situation and lessons from livestock.
In this review the available reports on drug resistance in human helminths, particularly hookworms and schistosomes, are critically analyzed. The experiences with helminths of livestock are then reviewed, in particular the factors contributing to the development of anthelmintic resistance, the mechanisms and genetics of resistance to various anthelmintic classes, and the methods available for detection. These experiences appear to be worryingly similar and relevant to the potential development of drug resistance in human helminths. Recommendations to reduce its risks are suggested. (+info)
Evaluation of commercially available preservatives for laboratory detection of helminths and protozoa in human fecal specimens.
Formalin and mercuric chloride-based low-viscosity polyvinyl alcohol (LV-PVA) are widely used by most diagnostic parasitology laboratories for preservation of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts and trophozoites in fecal specimens. Concerns about the toxicity of formalin and the difficulty of disposal of LV-PVA are powerful incentives to use alternate preservatives. Such alternatives have been marketed by several companies and are often presented as one-vial, non-mercuric chloride fixatives that aim at performing the same role as formalin and PVA combined. We compared five, one-vial commercial preservatives, two from Meridian Diagnostics, Inc. (Ecofix and sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin), and one each from Scientific Device Laboratories, Inc. (Parasafe), Alpha Tec Systems, Inc. (Proto-fix), and Streck Laboratories, Inc. (STF), with 10% formalin and LV-PVA. Fecal specimens obtained from patients in a Brazilian hospital were aliquoted within 12 h of collection into the seven preservatives mentioned above and were processed after 1 month at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Direct and concentrated permanent smears as well as concentrates for 20 positive specimens (a total of 259 processed samples) were prepared, stained according to the manufacturers' instructions, examined, and graded. Positive specimens contained one or more parasites with stages consisting of eggs, larvae, cysts, and a few trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis. Criteria for assessment of the preservatives included the quality of the diagnostic characteristics of helminth eggs, protozoan cysts, and trophozoites, ease of use, and cost. Acceptable alternatives to formalin for wet preparations were found. Ecofix was found to be comparable to the traditional "gold standard" LV-PVA for the visualization of protozoa in permanent stained smears. This study suggests that more acceptable alternatives to the traditional formalin and LV-PVA exist. (+info)