Gastric surgery for pseudotumor cerebri associated with severe obesity.
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of gastric surgery-induced weight loss for the treatment of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pseudotumor cerebri (also called idiopathic intracranial hypertension), a known complication of severe obesity, is associated with severe headaches, pulsatile tinnitus, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressures, and normal brain imaging. The authors have found in previous clinical and animal studies that PTC in obese persons is probably secondary to a chronic increase in intraabdominal pressure leading to increased intrathoracic pressure. CSF-peritoneal shunts have a high failure rate, probably because they involve shunting from a high-pressure system to another high-pressure zone. In an earlier study of gastric bypass surgery in eight patients, CSF pressure decreased from 353+/-35 to 168+/-12 mm H2O at 34+/-8 months after surgery, with resolution of headaches in all. METHODS: Twenty-four severely obese women underwent bariatric surgery--23 gastric bypasses and one laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding--62+/-52 months ago for the control of severe obesity associated with PTC. CSF pressures were 324+/-83 mm H2O. Additional PTC central nervous system and cranial nerve problems included peripheral visual field loss, trigeminal neuralgia, recurrent Bell's palsy, and pulsatile tinnitus. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea occurred in one patient, and hemiplegia with homonymous hemianopsia developed as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in another. There were two occluded lumboperitoneal shunts and another functional but ineffective lumboperitoneal shunt. Additional obesity comorbidity in these patients included degenerative joint disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertension, urinary stress incontinence, sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation, and type II diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: At 1 year after bariatric surgery, 19 patients lost an average of 45+/-12 kg, which was 71+/-18% of their excess weight. Their body mass index and percentage of ideal body weight had fallen to 30+/-5 kg/m2 and 133+/-22%, respectively. In four patients, less than 1 year had elapsed since surgery. Five patients were lost to follow-up. Surgically induced weight loss was associated with resolution of headache and pulsatile tinnitus in all but one patient within 4 months of the procedure. The cranial nerve dysfunctions resolved in all patients. The patient with CSF rhinorrhea had resolution within 4 weeks of gastric bypass. Of the 19 patients not lost to follow-up, 2 regained weight, with recurrence of headache and pulsatile tinnitus. Additional resolved associated comorbidities were 6/14 degenerative joint disease, 9/10 gastroesophageal reflux disorder, 2/6 hypertension, and all with sleep apnea, hypoventilation, type II diabetes mellitus, and urinary incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery is the long-term procedure of choice for severely obese patients with PTC and is shown to have a much higher rate of success than CSF-peritoneal shunting reported in the literature, as well as providing resolution of additional obesity comorbidity. Increased intraabdominal pressure associated with central obesity is the probable etiology of PTC, a condition that should no longer be considered idiopathic. (+info)
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of 99mTc-pertechnetate scanning in the diagnosis of gastric banding leaks. METHODS: Three patients with morbid obesity received laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB), but no significant weight reduction was obtained. To exclude band leakage as the cause, four scintigraphic procedures were performed, consisting of imaging the upper abdomen 30 min and 3 h after injection of 3 mL (111 MBq) pertechnetate solution into the ASGB reservoir. In one patient, the integrity of the ASGB device was first assessed radiologically after injection of a water-soluble contrast agent into the ASGB reservoir. RESULTS: In two normally functioning ASGB devices, radiotracer was observed within the device on both early and late images. In two patients with a surgically proven small leak in the reservoir or the connecting tube, late images showed little tracer in the reservoir and the connecting tube. However, intense tracer accumulation was observed in the stomach as a result of resorption of pertechnetate in the subcutaneous or peritoneal blood vessels and subsequent gastric uptake. In one of the latter patients, radiographic assessment of the ASGB device revealed no abnormalities. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-pertechnetate scanning is a valuable technique to diagnose small leaks in an ASGB device. (+info)
An ambulant porcine model of acid reflux used to evaluate endoscopic gastroplasty.
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of suitable models for testing of therapeutic procedures for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic sewing methods might allow the development of a new less invasive surgical approach to treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. AIMS: To develop an animal model of gastro-oesophageal reflux for testing the efficacy of a new antireflux procedure, endoscopic gastroplasty, performed at flexible endoscopy without laparotomy or laparoscopy. METHODS: At endoscopy a pH sensitive radiotelemetry capsule was sewn to the oesophageal wall, 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter, in six large white pigs. Ambulant pH recordings (48-96 hours; total 447 hours) were obtained. The median distal oesophageal pH was 6.8 (range 6.4-7.3); pH was less than 4 for 9.3% of the time. After one week, endoscopic gastroplasty was performed by placing sutures below the gastro-oesophageal junction, forming a neo-oesophagus of 1-2 cm in length. Postoperative manometry and pH recordings (24-96 hours; total 344 hours) were carried out. RESULTS: Following gastroplasty, the median sphincter pressure increased significantly from 3 to 6 mm Hg and in length from 3 to 3.75 cm. The median time pH was less than 4 decreased significantly from 9.3% to 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first long term measurements of oesophageal pH in ambulant pigs. The finding of spontaneous reflux suggested a model for studying treatments of reflux. Endoscopic gastroplasty increased sphincter pressure and length and decreased acid reflux. (+info)
Treatment for morbid obesity.
There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surgical treatment of morbid obesity is the only therapeutic form that has stood the test of time, it still remains a crisis-driven form of therapy in the UK. It is probable that a better understanding of the aetiology and physiology of obesity may lead to the development of an effective pharmacological treatment of obesity in the future. However, until then, surgical treatment of morbid obesity should be considered as an effective and efficient way of treatment in selected cases. (+info)
The short esophagus: pathophysiology, incidence, presentation, and treatment in the era of laparoscopic antireflux surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the pathophysiology and incidence of the short esophagus, to review the history of treatment, and to describe diagnosis and possible treatments in the era of laparoscopic surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The entity of the short esophagus in antireflux surgery is seldom discussed in the laparoscopic literature, despite its emphasis in the open literature for more than 40 years. This may imply that many laparoscopic patients with short esophagi are unrecognized and perhaps treated inappropriately. Intrinsic shortening of the esophagus most commonly occurs in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease that involves recurring cycles of inflammation and healing, with subsequent fibrosis. The actual incidence of the short esophagus is estimated to be approximately 10% of patients undergoing antireflux surgery. Of this group, 7% can be appropriately managed with extensive mediastinal mobilization of the esophagus to achieve the required esophageal length. The remaining 3% require an aggressive surgical approach, including the use of gastroplasty procedures, to create an adequate length of intraabdominal esophagus to perform a wrap. Several effective minimally invasive techniques have been developed to deal with the short esophagus. CONCLUSIONS: Because a short esophagus is uncommon, there is a natural concern that many surgeons will not perform enough antireflux procedures to become familiar with its diagnosis and management. A complete understanding of the short esophagus and methods for surgical correction are critical to avoid "slipped" wraps and mediastinal herniation and to achieve the best patient outcome. (+info)
Elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations six months after gastroplasty in morbidly obese subjects.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the increased homocysteine levels occur in the first 6 months postoperatively, when nutritional intake is the most inadequate and weight reduction is the most drastic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fasting glucose, insulin, lipoprotein, homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and oral glucose, tolerance test (OGTT) were determined in 12 morbidly obese subjects (3 men and 9 women with a mean age of 31+/-3 years, mean+/-SEM) before, 6 and 12 months after banded gastroplasty. RESULTS: Gastroplasty resulted in significant weight loss, from 120+/-6 to 92+/-6 and 88+/-7 kgs, 6 and 12 months postoperatively (all p<0.001). Fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, glucose and insulin responses to OGTT, and the degree of insulin resistance as expressed by the Homeostasis model index decreased significantly (p<0.05-0.001) following gastroplasty. Fasting plasma homocysteine concentrations increased from 10.2+/-0.8 to 12.1+/-0.6 at 6 months (p=0.036) and 12.0+/-1.2 micromol/l at 12 months (p=0.040), respectively. Pooled plasma homocysteine levels were negatively correlated with serum folate concentrations (r=-0.42, p=0.013). However, serum folate and vitamin B12 levels did not change after gastroplasty, nor did the relation between the loss of body weight and increase in homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION: We observed that elevated circulating homocysteine levels occurred as early as 6 months after gastroplasty despite improvement in carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism in morbidly obese Chinese subjects. (+info)
Laparoscopic gastric banding: a minimally invasive surgical treatment for morbid obesity: prospective study of 500 consecutive patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early and late morbidity of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity and to assess the efficacy of this procedure by analyzing its results. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is considered the least invasive surgical option for morbid obesity. It is effective, with an average loss of 50% of excessive weight after 2 years of follow-up. It is potentially reversible and safe; major morbidity is low and there is no mortality. METHODS: Between April 1997 and June 2001, 500 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for morbid obesity with application of an adjustable gastric band. There were 438 women and 62 men (sex ratio = 0.14) with a mean age of 40.4 years. Preoperative mean body weight was 120.7 kg and mean body mass index (BMI) was 44.3 kg. m. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 105 minutes, 84 minutes during the last 300 operations. Mean hospital stay was 4.5 days. There were no deaths. There were 12 conversions (2.4%), 2 during the last 300 operations. Fifty-two patients (10.4%) had complications requiring an abdominal reoperation. Forty-nine underwent a reoperation for minor complications: slippage (n = 43, incisional hernias (n = 3), and reconnection of the catheter (n = 3). Three patients underwent a reoperation for major complications: gastroesophageal perforation (n = 2) and gastric necrosis (n = 1). Seven patients had pulmonary complications and 36 patients experienced minor problems related to the access port. At 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up, mean BMI decreased from 44.3 kg. m to 34.2, 32.8, and 31.9, respectively, and mean excess weight loss reached 42.8%, 52%, and 54.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a beneficial operation in terms of excessive weight loss, with an acceptably low complication rate. It can noticeably improve the quality of life in obese patients. Half of the excess body weight can be effortlessly lost within 2 years. (+info)
Surgical treatment of severe obesity with a low-pressure adjustable gastric band: experimental data and clinical results in 625 patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of a low-pressure gastric band in the treatment of severe obesity in a prospective study. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Gastric banding for severe obesity has been associated with erosion and perforation of the stomach. The Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) has been proposed as a low-pressure device. METHODS: From January 1998 to October 2001, 625 patients underwent laparoscopic SAGB. Median age was 36 years, and 80.4% of patients were female. Median preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 40. Previous upper abdominal surgery was reported in 36 (6%) patients. A five-trocar technique was used without a calibration balloon. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 19.5 months. All patients were treated laparoscopically with a median operating time of 80 minutes. Conversion was necessary in two patients (0.3%): one trocar injury of the mesentery and one esophageal perforation. Median hospital stay was 3 days; there were no 30-day deaths. Early morbidity was present in 27 patients (4.3%). Late band reoperation was necessary in 49 patients (7.8%). Indications for reoperation were band slippage or pouch dilation, acute total dysphagia, and band leakage or malfunction. Median excess weight loss was 45.8%, 49.9%, and 47.4% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, with a measurable beneficial effect on arterial hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, and diabetes control. CONCLUSIONS: SAGB is a safe and effective new method in the management of severe obesity. Long-term follow-up (>3 years) is necessary to confirm its effectiveness and safety. (+info)