Activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression by Gardnerella vaginalis.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with an increased rate of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, and Gardnerella vaginalis is frequently isolated from the genital tracts of women with BV. G. vaginalis lysates were found to significantly stimulate HIV expression in monocytoid cells. Stimulation was significantly higher when lysates were heated at 100 degrees C for 5 min but was reduced by treatment with lysozyme or protease. G. vaginalis lysates also activated HIV expression in certain T cell lines. G. vaginalis lysates activated HIV long-terminal repeat transcription in HIV-infected cells and increased NF-kappaB binding activity, indicating an effect by G. vaginalis on HIV transcription. The activation of HIV production by G. vaginalis suggests that genital tract infection with G. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by increasing HIV expression in the genital tract. This may explain, at least in part, the increased rate of HIV transmission in women with BV. (+info)
The effects of three nonoxynol-9 preparations on vaginal flora and epithelium.
To evaluate the effects of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) on the vaginal flora and epithelium, 48 women (16 in each group) were evaluated by use of quantitative vaginal cultures and colposcopy. at baseline and at 0.5, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h after insertion of one of three N-9 preparations (4% gel [Conceptrol], 3.5% gel [Advantage-24], or a 28% vaginal contraceptive film). The proportion positive for H2O2+ or H2O2- lactobacilli did not change significantly with any of the preparations, but lactobacilli concentrations decreased transiently. Both the proportion of women with Gardnerella vaginalis and the concentration of G. vaginalis decreased transiently. The proportion of women with Escherichia coli increased with the 4% gel, and the concentration increased with all preparations. The number with anaerobic gram-negative rods increased, although the concentrations decreased. Symptoms and colposcopic abnormalities were rare. Changes in levels of vaginal bacteria were transient after single applications of N-9, but adverse effects may be enhanced with frequent, chronic use. (+info)
Obligately anaerobic strains of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis).
Six obligately anaerobic strains of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis) have been isolated and their characteristics studied. The reactions of the anaerobic strains, as well as of facultative strains tested under anaerobic conditions, are similar to the reactions previously reported for this species. (+info)
Identification of a human lactoferrin-binding protein in Gardnerella vaginalis.
Previous studies have shown that Gardnerella vaginalis can utilize iron-loaded human lactoferrin as a sole source of iron. In this study, G. vaginalis cells were shown to bind digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled human lactoferrin in a dot blot assay. Using the DIG-labeled human lactoferrin, a 120-kDa human lactoferrin-binding protein was detected by Western blot analysis of G. vaginalis proteins. The lactoferrin-binding activity of this protein was found to be heat stable. Competition studies indicated that this binding activity was specific for human lactoferrin. Treatment of G. vaginalis cells with proteases suggested that this protein was surface exposed. An increase in lactoferrin binding by the 120-kDa protein was observed in G. vaginalis cells grown under iron-restrictive conditions, suggesting that this activity may be iron regulated. (+info)
Characterisation and selection of a Lactobacillus species to re-colonise the vagina of women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis.
This paper reports the results of characterising and selecting a strain of Lactobacillus for potential use as a probiotic in regenerating the vaginal flora of women with recurrent episodes of bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV is a condition characterised by a depletion of vaginal lactobacilli accompanied by an overgrowth of a mixed vaginal flora of aerobic, anaerobic and micro-aerophilic species in very large numbers. BV has been associated with various gynaecological and obstetric complications and has an extremely high recurrence rate, due in part to the failure to establish a normal vaginal flora after antimicrobial therapy. A total of 60 vaginal isolates of lactobacilli was assessed for characteristics considered important for vaginal re-colonisation. The characteristics studied were the in-vitro inhibitory activity of the lactobacilli against bacterial species isolated from women with recurrent BV, acid production after growth of the lactobacilli in liquid culture, production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and adhesiveness of the lactobacilli to exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells (VEC). Four strains of lactobacilli, L. acidophilus (61701 and 61880), L. crispatus (55730) and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (65407), demonstrated the greatest inhibitory activity against the BV-associated bacterial species. Two of these isolates (55730 and 61880) produced H2O2. All four isolates produced a highly acidic environment after growth in liquid medium (pH <4). Only one of these (strain 61701) was strongly adherent to VEC (>100 bacteria/VEC). A further isolate (L. acidophilus 48101) did not demonstrate maximum inhibitory activity against BV-associated bacteria, but was found to be a strong producer of H2O2 and was also highly adherent to VEC. Isolates 61701 and 48101 could be candidates for use as probiotics for vaginal re-colonisation. (+info)
Comparison of isolation of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from peptone-starch-dextrose agar and Columbia colistin-nalidoxic acid agar.
A total of 447 cervical or vaginal specimens were inoculated in parallel onto peptone-starch-dextrose (PSD) and Columbia colistin (10 mg/ml)-nalidixic acid (15 mug/ml) (CNA) agar and were incubated for 48 h at 35 degrees C in an atmosphere with 2 to 10% CO2. One hundred (22.4%) of the cultures were positive for Haemophilus vaginalis. Forty-eight of the isolates were recovered from both PSD and Columbia CNA agar, five from PSD only, and 47 from Columbia CNA agar only (P less than 0.001). On Columbia CNA agar, 76 of the isolates were detected after 24 h of incubation, and the remainder were detected within 4 days of incubation. (+info)
Incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp and human papilloma virus in cytological smears.
CONTEXT: In spite of the wide-ranging literature on the microbiology of normal and abnormal flora of the vagina, there are few studies on the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and other vaginal microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) and other agents like Candida sp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis in cytological smears. DESIGN STUDY: Retrospective study SETTING: A public tertiary referral center. SAMPLE: An analysis of 17,391 cytologies from outpatients seen between January 1997 and August 1998. The control group was made up of patients in the same age group and same period with no cytological evidence of HPV infection. Patients with a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or III were excluded from this analysis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The diagnosis of HPV infection was made in accordance with the criteria of Schneider et al. and the diagnosis of Gardnerella vaginalis was made with a finding of clue cells. RESULTS: 390 (2. 24%) had alterations consistent with infection by HPV, sometimes associated with CIN I. The results showed that Gardnerella vaginalis was the most frequent agent in women with HPV infection (23.6% versus 17.4%; P <0.05), while in the control group the most frequent agent was Candida sp. (23.9% versus 13.8%; p <0.001). CONCLUSION: In spite of this study being based solely on cytological criteria, in which specific HPV and Gardnerella diagnostic tests were not used, the cytological smear is widely used in clinical practice and the data presented in this investigation show that there is an association between Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV infection. It remains to be established whether the microorganisms favor each other. (+info)
The role of fomites in the transmission of vaginitis.
A role for fomites such as toilet seats in the transmission of vaginitis has never been proved or disproved. A compilation of clinical data from a university community showed that the organisms found in vaginal cultures of patients with vaginitis were, in order of frequency. Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Hemophilus vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. In a concurrent bacteriologic survey of washroom fixtures, staphylococci and other micrococci were isolated most frequently. The overt pathogens associated with vaginitis were never found, and gram-negative organisms appeared to be suppressed by the disinfectant used by the cleaning staff. It is clear that fomites are not an important mode of transmission in vaginitis, although a search for specific pathogens on toilets is to be continued. (+info)