Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography.
The transport function of the uterus and oviducts and its modulation by oxytocin has been examined using hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, recording of intrauterine pressure, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography of the Fallopian tubes. After application to the posterior vaginal fornix, a rapid (within minutes) uptake of the labelled particles into the uterus was observed during the follicular and during the luteal phase of the cycle in all patients. Transport into the oviducts, however, could only be demonstrated during the follicular phase. Transport was directed predominantly into the tube ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle; the contralateral oviduct appeared to be functionally closed. The proportion of patients exhibiting ipsilateral transport did increase concomitant with the increase of the diameter of the dominant follicle. That ipsilateral transport has biological significance is suggested by the observation that the pregnancy rate following spontaneous intercourse or insemination was significantly higher in those women in whom ipsilateral transport could be demonstrated than in those who failed to exhibit lateralization. Oxytocin administration was followed by a dramatic increase in the amount of material transported to the ipsilateral tube, as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging and by Doppler sonography following instillation of ultrasound contrast medium. Continuous recording of intrauterine pressure before and after oxytocin administration did show an increase in basal tonus and amplitude of contractions and a reversal of the pressure gradient from a fundo-cervical to a cervico-fundal direction. These actions of oxytocin were accompanied by an increase in amplitude of potentials recorded by electrohysterography. These data support the view that uterus and Fallopian tubes represent a functional unit that is acting as a peristaltic pump and that the increasing activity of this pump during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is reflected by an increased transport into the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle. In addition, they strongly suggest a critical role of oxytocin in this process. Failure of this mechanism appears to be a cause of subfertility or infertility, as indicated by the low pregnancy rate following intrauterine insemination or normal intercourse in the presence of patent Fallopian tubes. It may be regarded as a new nosological entity for which we propose the term tubal transport disorder (TTD). Since pregnancy rate of such patients is normal when treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF), hysterosalpingoscintigraphy seems to be useful for the choice of treatment modalities in patients with patent Fallopian tubes suffering from infertility. (+info)
Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and pharmacokinetics of 111In-antimyosin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
In view of the established role of 111In-antimyosin in the detection of heart muscle pathology, radiation dose estimates were made for this substance. Biodistribution and biokinetic data were obtained from our studies, which failed to show abnormal uptake of 111In-antimyosin in localized sites of skeletal muscle involvement in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: After intravenous administration of 74 MBq (2 mCi) 111In-antimyosin, gamma camera scintigraphy was performed in 12 adult patients with inflammatory muscle disease and in 2 control patients. Six whole-body scans were performed over 72 h, and uptake of 111In-antimyosin in organs was quantified using an attenuation-corrected conjugate counting method. Residence times in source organs were used with MIRDOSE software to obtain radiation dose estimates. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from serial whole-blood and plasma 111In concentrations. RESULTS: The tracer cleared slowly from the circulation, and highest organ uptakes were found in the marrow and liver; kidneys showed the highest concentrations. Uptake was also evident in spleen, the facial image and male genitalia. CONCLUSION: For a typical administered activity of 74 MBq 111In-antimyosin, the kidneys receive the highest dose (58 mSv), and the effective dose is 11 mSv. Radioactivity was cleared from plasma at an average rate of 136 mL/h, and the mean steady-state distribution was approximately 5 L plasma. (+info)
Pretargeting of bacterial endocarditis in rats with streptavidin and 111In-labeled biotin.
A radioimaging approach for the detection of endocarditis has been investigated using two-step pretargeting with streptavidin and radiolabeled biotin. METHODS: Hemodynamic alterations within the rat heart were induced by placing an in-dwelling catheter into the left ventricle through the aortic valves. The animals were subsequently infected with Staphylococcus aureus through a tail vein. After an incubation period, rats were first injected with streptavidin and, 2 h later, with 111In-labeled ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid-biotin. Whole-body gamma camera images were taken 4-5 h postinjection of the radiolabeled biotin. Control animals consisted of catheterized but uninfected, infected but uncatheterized and normal untreated rats. As a further control, the labeled biotin was administered to a study animal without the preadministration of streptavidin. RESULTS: Histology showed typical endocarditic changes in the hearts of study animals with massive deposition of gram-positive cocci. Catheterized but uninfected animals showed alterations corresponding to nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Macroautoradiography showed accumulation of radiolabel in the endocarditic vegetations of study animals. Whole-body gamma camera images showed important cardiac uptake in 7 of 8 catheterized and infected animals and in 3 of 6 catheterized but uninfected animals. Normal rats and those infected but not catheterized showed negative results by histology, autoradiography and imaging. The percent uptake of the injected dose in the heart was 0.20 (SD = 0.13) in catheterized and infected animals, 0.12 (SD = 0.10) in catheterized but uninfected animals, 0.10 (SD = 0.04) in infected but uncatheterized animals and 0.04 (SD = 0.01) in normal control animals. CONCLUSION: The two-step pretargeting approach using streptavidin and 111In-labeled biotin was used successfully to detect S. aureus-induced bacterial endocarditis in rats. (+info)
Feasibility of fluorodeoxyglucose dual-head gamma camera coincidence imaging in the evaluation of lung cancer: comparison with FDG PET.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the feasibility of fluorodeoxyglucose gamma camera coincidence imaging (FDG GCI) in the evaluation of lung cancer in comparison with FDG PET. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with recently diagnosed lung cancer were examined with both FDG PET and FDG GCI on the same day. Pulmonary lesions were analyzed visually and semiquantitatively using the ratio of lesion-to-background counts (L/B ratio). The L/B ratio of FDG PET without attenuation correction (AC) was also calculated and compared. Nodal stations were only visually analyzed. RESULTS: FDG GCI and FDG PET could detect 22 and 23, respectively, of 23 pulmonary lesions by visual analysis (95.7% versus 100%). The L/B ratio of FDG GCI was 4.26 +/- 2.55, and significantly lower than that of FDG PET (9.29 +/- 4.95; P < 0.01). The L/B ratio of FDG PET was significantly higher with AC than that without AC (9.29 +/- 4.95 vs. 6.66 +/- 4.65; P < 0.01). When the L/B ratio threshold was set at 5.0 for FDG PET and 2.7 for FDG GCI, their sensitivity was 87.0% and 73.9%, respectively. Of the 3 and 6 patients with false-negative results on semiquantitative analysis, the lesions in 3 patients on FDG PET and 4 patients on FDG GCI were less than or equal to 2.0 cm in greatest diameter, respectively. In the assessment of mediastinal involvement, FDG PET was 77.8% sensitive, 78.6% specific and 78.3% accurate, whereas FDG GCI was 77.8% sensitive, 92.9% specific and 87.0% accurate. In the hilar regions, FDG PET was 100% sensitive, 84.2% specific and 87.0% accurate, whereas FDG GCI was 75.0% sensitive, 89.5% specific and 87.0% accurate. CONCLUSION: In this study, FDG GCI yielded results comparable to FDG PET on visual analysis to detect pulmonary lesions and lymph node metastases. However, the lesion-to-background contrasts of pulmonary lesions and nodal involvement were lower in FDG GCI than in FDG PET. Comparison between the L/B ratio of FDG PET with and without AC indicated that, with AC, FDG GCI would be closer to FDG PET in the evaluation of lung cancer. (+info)
Assessment of pulmonary lesions with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron imaging using coincidence mode gamma cameras.
Accurate assessment of lung carcinoma remains a significant clinical problem, often leading to surgical procedures without curative potential. PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has shown promise in differentiating benign from malignant lesions and in staging the extent of disease, resulting in improved treatment at a significant cost savings. This multicenter prospective study used dual-detector coincidence imaging with FDG to categorize pulmonary lesions as benign or malignant. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of dual-detector coincidence imaging of FDG in patients with pulmonary lesions who were scheduled to have a diagnostic procedure for histopathologic confirmation. METHODS: A total of 96 patients with pulmonary lesions with a lesion size ranging from 1 to 7 cm with a mean of 3.44 cm based on their chest radiograph or CT scan were studied using FDG scans with a dual-detector coincidence detection system. An additional 24 patients were entered as control subjects. The studies of 120 subjects were interpreted in random order by three physicians experienced in the use of FDG in patients with lung cancer. Surgical pathology was used as the standard for identifying malignant lesions. RESULTS: There was 94% agreement between the readers in the independent interpretation of the FDG studies. In the 96 patients with pulmonary lesions, FDG studies were 97% sensitive and 80% specific in identifying proven malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: The results of this prospective study provide evidence that dual-detector coincidence imaging with FDG provides an accurate, sensitive and specific means of diagnosing malignancy in patients with pulmonary lesions. (+info)
Rapid evaluation of weekly scintillation camera resolution and linearity using the orthogonal tri-hole phantom.
OBJECTIVE: Both state and federal regulations require weekly monitoring of the resolution and linearity of the scintillation camera. Several phantoms are available to perform this quality control function. These include the quadrant bar. Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH), and orthogonal-hole (OH) phantoms. Each of these phantoms has either functional or temporal limitations on its use. The orthogonal tri-hole phantom (OTHP) was designed to overcome these limitations. METHODS: The OTHP consists of a precision-drilled lead plate sandwiched between two plastic plates. The OTHP has an active area of 15 in. x 20 in. which contains an orthogonal array of three-hole (2.5-mm, 3.0-mm, and 4.0-mm) clusters. Intrinsic and extrinsic images were acquired for the OTHP, OH phantom, BRH phantom and quadrant bar phantom. RESULTS: The OTHP test pattern allows resolution, linearity, object shape, and contrast to be evaluated simultaneously, either intrinsically or extrinsically, in a single image over the entire useful field-of-view. CONCLUSION: The OTHP provides a more quantitative evaluation of the quality control parameters than any other phantom currently available. The use of the OTHP results in cost savings since both camera and technologist time are reduced because only one image is required instead of the two or four needed for other phantoms. (+info)
Improved renal cortical SPECT of neonates and young infants using narrow imaging pallets.
OBJECTIVE: The widths of most commercially-made imaging pallets limit the resolution of 99mTc DMSA SPECT imaging in neonates and young infants. We constructed a pediatric imaging pallet for 99mTc DMSA SPECT of neonates and young infants designed to allow close apposition of the camera to these patients during the entire orbit. METHODS: We designed the imaging pallet to replace the standard removable pallet on the imaging stand of a commercial gamma camera. The device consisted of two parts: a steel bracket attached to the imaging stand and a polyvinyl chloride imaging pallet. The imaging pallet consisted of interchangeable 15.24-cm (6-in) or 20.32-cm (8-in) diameter, 6.35-mm (1/4-in) thick polyvinyl chloride plumbing pipes cut in half lengthwise. RESULTS: The pallets were mechanically stable with loads 3 times that expected in clinical practice. Attenuation was acceptable and comparable to commercial pallets. The hemicylindrical shape provided side support and reduced patient motion, as well as allowing closer apposition of the camera head to the patient. The quality of these 99mTc DMSA SPECT images compared favorably with those obtainable in older children and adults. Specifically, the renal cortices were well delineated from the collecting systems and anatomic detail of normal cortex could be readily distinguished from abnormal cortex. CONCLUSION: Custom pediatric imaging pallets optimized for use in neonates and small children can be constructed inexpensively. These pallets are easy to use and are stable. Use of these pallets can optimize 99mTc DMSA SPECT images of neonates and young infants. (+info)
Comparison of dual-head coincidence gamma camera FDG imaging with FDG PET in detection of breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis.
Dual-head coincidence gamma camera 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging was compared with FDG PET in the detection of breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis. METHODS: Both coincidence gamma camera FDG imaging and FDG PET were performed in a cylindrical phantom containing spheres of different sizes and activity ratios (5:1, 10:1 and 15:1) and in 30 women (age range 32-78 y) with suspected breast cancer. Biopsies or mastectomies were performed in all patients. Images were visually assessed, and the count ratio between tumor and normal tissue (T/N ratio) was calculated. RESULTS: In the phantom studies, coincidence gamma camera imaging visualized the smallest sphere (1.0 cm) at a ratio of 15:1 but not at ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. Coincidence gamma camera imaging visualized the other spheres (> or =1.3 cm) at all ratios. PET visualized all spheres at all ratios. In the clinical studies, 22 of 26 breast carcinomas detected by PET were also detected by coincidence gamma camera imaging.. Coincidence gamma camera imaging detected all of the carcinomas > or =2 cm in diameter (n = 10) and 12 of 16 carcinomas <2 cm. In breast carcinomas detected by both PET and coincidence gamma camera imaging, the T/N ratio in non-attenuation-corrected PET (7.12 +/- 7.13) was significantly higher than in coincidence gamma camera imaging (2.90 +/- 1.47, P < 0.005). Four of 8 axillary lymph node metastases detected by PET were detected by coincidence gamma camera imaging. Of 9 axillary lymph node metastases <1.0 cm in diameter, 7 and 3 were detected by PET and coincidence gamma camera imaging, respectively. CONCLUSION: Coincidence gamma camera imaging is useful in detecting breast carcinoma > or =2 cm in diameter but is not reliable for breast carcinoma <2 cm in diameter. Coincidence gamma camera imaging may be useless or even dangerous in the detection of axillary lymph node metastasis. (+info)