Fosinopril reduces left ventricular mass in untreated hypertensive patients: a controlled trial.
AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that fosinopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduces left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with untreated mild essential hypertension were randomised to treatment with oral fosinopril (10 mg-20 mg daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in left ventricular mass index determined by echocardiography. RESULTS: Diastolic blood pressure changed from 95.5+/-2.1 mmHg at baseline to 96.6+/-2.8 mmHg at the final visit in control patients and changed from 96.6+/-2.3 mmHg to 91.5+/-3.0 mmHg in patients treated with fosinopril (P= 0.04). Systolic blood pressure changed from 147.4+/-3.2 mmHg at baseline to 152.7+/-4.4 mmHg at the final visit in control patients and changed from 157.6+/-5.1 mmHg to 149.1+/-6.1 mmHg in patients treated with fosinopril (P=0.02). Fosinopril reduced diastolic pressure by 6.3 (95%CI 0.3-12.4) mmHg and systolic pressure by 13.3 (95%CI 2.7-23.8) mmHg compared with placebo. The left ventricular mass index changed from 110.0+/-8.3 gm(-2) to 113.1+/-8.7 g m(-2) in the control patients and changed from 120.8+/-5.8 g m(-2) to 109.0+/-7.5 g m(-2) in patients treated with fosinopril (P=0.02). Fosinopril reduced left ventricular mass index by 14.9 (95%CI 2.2-27.6) g m(-2) compared with placebo. There was no significant change in the left ventricular systolic or diastolic function, nor were there any significant changes in plasma electrolytes and renal function. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with fosinopril for 12 weeks reduced left ventricular mass significantly in hypertensive patients. (+info)
How often are angiotensin II and aldosterone concentrations raised during chronic ACE inhibitor treatment in cardiac failure?
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II (AII) and aldosterone are not always fully suppressed during chronic angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment. In congestive heart failure (CHF) such failure of hormonal suppression is associated with increased mortality. This study examined how common AII and aldosterone increases are observed during routine clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 91 patients with symptomatic (mean New York Heart Association class 2.7) CHF (mean (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction 29.9 (8)%, range 9-46%) were studied 4-6 hours after ACE inhibitor dosing. A representative range of ACE inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril, perindopril, and fosinopril) was examined. RESULTS: Supine measurements showed a wide range of AII (10.5 (25.5) pg/ml), aldosterone (130.8 (136) pg/ml), and serum ACE (12.1 (13.3) EU/l; excludes captopril data) concentrations on diuretics. AII concentrations > 10 pg/ml were seen in 15% of patients, and aldosterone concentrations > 144 pg/ml were seen in 38% of patients. AII concentrations were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with ACE but not with aldosterone concentrations. Aldosterone concentrations were not significantly correlated with ACE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: AII "reactivation" occurred in 15% and failure of aldosterone suppression in 38% of routine CHF patients taking ACE inhibitor treatment. AII "reactivation" was associated with both low and high levels of ACE activity, which suggests that multiple different mechanisms are at play. In patients with high plasma ACE concentrations, non-compliance should be considered along with inadequate dose titration. In patients with low plasma ACE and high AII concentrations, non-ACE mediated production of AII may be operative. Raised aldosterone concentrations appear to be more common than AII "reactivation". It is important to establish the cause of detectable or increased AII concentrations in a heart failure patient treated with an ACE inhibitor. The measurement of serum ACE may help to identify the likely cause as poor compliance or inadequate dose. (+info)
Fosinopril/hydrochlorothiazide: single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
AIMS: Fosinoprilat, the active product of fosinopril, is eliminated by an hepatic pathway in addition to the renal pathway shared by other angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). This study aimed to determine whether impaired renal function affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). METHODS: The study had a parallel-group design comparing patients with renal impairment and body-mass-index-matched normal controls. The study was done in a University clinic in 13 patients with renal impairment (mean creatinine clearance 55.7+/-15.6 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 ) and 13 age-, sex-, and body-mass-index-matched normal controls (mean creatinine clearance 102.4+/-8.9 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 ). All patients and normal controls received fosinopril sodium 20 mg and HCTZ 12.5 mg as a daily oral administration on days 1-5. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of fosinoprilat and HCTZ were determined from blood and urine samples obtained over 48 h starting on Day 1 (single dose) and Day 5 (steady state): maximum serum concentration (Cmax ), time to maximum serum concentration (tmax ), area under the serum concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC), cumulative urinary excretion (CUE) and the accumulation index (AI; ratio of AUC-day 5/AUC-day 1). Pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured over 24 h on day 1 and over 48 h on day 5: serum ACE activity and arterial blood pressure. RESULTS: Fosinoprilat pharmacokinetic parameters on day 1 in renally impaired vs normal patients: Cmax=387+/-0.19 vs 324+/-0.25 ng ml-1 (P=0.07); tmax=3.5 vs 3.0 h (P=0.58); AUC=3510+/-0.29 vs 2701+/-0.35 ng ml-1 h (P=0. 072); CUE=5.08+/-2.70 vs 7.40+/-2.56% (P=0.009). Fosinoprilat parameters on day 5: Cmax=517+/-0.40 vs 357+/-0.19 ng ml-1 (P=0. 007); tmax=3.0 vs 3.0 h (P >0.99); AUC=4098+/-0.43 vs 2872+/-0.30 ng ml-1 h (P=0.027); CUE=6.81+/-3.53 vs 8.10+/-2.80% (P=0.068). AI=1. 17+/-0.33 vs 1.06+/-0.23 (P=0.29). In both groups ACE inhibition and blood pressure response were similar over 24 h and slightly greater 48 h after last dosing. CONCLUSIONS: In renally impaired subjects fosinopril and HCTZ can be coadministered without undue increases in fosinoprilat concentrations or any clinically significant pharmacodynamic effects. This is probably due to the dual excretory pathways for fosinoprilat. (+info)
Characterization of MAP kinase and PKC isoform and effect of ACE inhibition in hypertrophy in vivo.
Protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation appear important in conferring hypertrophy in vitro. However, the response of PKC and MAP kinase to stimuli known to induce hypertrophy in vivo has not been determined. We recently demonstrated that pressure-overload hypertrophy induced a transiently transfected gene driven by an hypertrophy responsive enhancer (HRE) through a marked increase in binding activity of its interacting nuclear factor (HRF). These data suggested that the HRE/HRF could serve as a target for evaluating the signal transduction events responsible for hypertrophy in vivo. Accordingly, we characterized MAP kinase and PKC isoform activation, injected HRE driven reporter gene expression, and HRF binding activity in rat hearts subjected to ascending aortic clipping or sham operation in the presence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor fosinopril, hydralazine, or no treatment. Analyses showed that PKC-epsilon and MAP kinase were acutely activated following ascending aortic ligature and that fosinopril significantly inhibited but did not completely abrogate PKC-epsilon and MAP kinase activation. However, fosinopril completely prevented pressure overload-mediated induction of HRE containing constructs and obviated increased HRF binding activity. These results suggest a direct relationship between ACE activity and HRE/HRF-mediated gene activation and imply that PKC-epsilon and MAP kinase may be involved in transducing this signal. (+info)
Resistance artery mechanics, structure, and extracellular components in spontaneously hypertensive rats : effects of angiotensin receptor antagonism and converting enzyme inhibition.
BACKGROUND: Altered vascular mechanics resulting from changes in collagen and integrins may influence resistance artery structure and function and, therefore, peripheral resistance and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Effects of age, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (fosinopril, 10 to 30 mg/kg per day), and AT(1)-receptor antagonism (irbesartan, 50 mg/kg per day) on vascular structure, mechanics, and composition were assessed in SHR. Systolic blood pressure was elevated in young SHR (130+/-2 mm Hg) compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (106+/-2 mm Hg). In adult SHR, the rise in systolic blood pressure (44+/-3 mm Hg) was blunted by fosinopril (18+/-1 mm Hg) and irbesartan (9+/-3 mm Hg). Lumen diameter of mesenteric resistance arteries was smaller and media/lumen ratio was greater in young and adult SHR versus WKY rats. Growth index was 24% in untreated adult SHR versus WKY rats; these values were -35% for fosinopril-treated and -29% for irbesartan-treated SHR versus untreated SHR. Isobaric wall stiffness was normal despite increased stiffness of wall components in adult SHR vessels. Irbesartan partially prevented stiffening of wall components in SHR. The collagen/elastin ratio was greater in adult SHR vessels (6.5+/-1.3) than in WKY (3.2+/-0.4) vessels. Expression of alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(5)beta(1) integrins was increased in SHR aged 20 versus 6 weeks. Expression of alpha(5)beta(1) integrins was lower in young SHR, and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins were overexpressed in adult SHR versus WKY rats. Irbesartan and fosinopril attenuated differences in the collagen/elastin ratio and integrin expression. CONCLUSIONS: Wall components of mesenteric resistance arteries stiffen with age in SHR. Interrupting the renin-angiotensin system has normalizing effects on integrin expression and composition, stiffness, and growth of the arterial wall. (+info)
Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of fosinoprilat with enalaprilat and lisinopril in patients with congestive heart failure and chronic renal insufficiency.
AIMS: To compare the serum pharmacokinetics of fosinoprilat with enalaprilat and lisinopril after 1 and 10 days of dosing with fosinopril, enalapril and lisinopril. METHODS: Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF, NYHA Class II-IV) and chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance +info)
The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, fosinopril, and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, inhibit LDL oxidation and attenuate atherosclerosis independent of lowering blood pressure in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible mechanisms of the antiatherosclerotic effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, fosinopril, in apolipoprotein (apo) E deficient mice. METHODS: Apo E deficient (E0) mice at the age of 8 weeks received either placebo or a high dose (25 mg/kg/d) of fosinopril supplemented in their drinking water. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, fosinopril reduced the aortic lesion size by 70%, compared with the placebo group. At this dosage, fosinopril significantly reduced blood pressure from 93 +/- 2 mmHg before treatment to 70 +/- 2 mmHg at the end of the treatment period (P < 0.005). Fosinopril also increased the resistance of the mice plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) to CuSO4-induced oxidation, as shown by a 90% reduction in the LDL content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and also by a prolongation of the lag time required for the initiation of LDL oxidation (from 100 min in the placebo-treated mice to more than 240 min in the fosinopril-treated mice; P < 0.001). In addition, fosinopril inhibited CuSO4-induced oxidation of LDL that was obtained from the aortas of the treated mice, as shown by an 18% and 37% reduction in the LDL content of lipid peroxides and hydroperoxy-cholesterol linoleate, respectively, compared with the placebo-treated mice (P < 0.01). A low dosage of fosinopril (5 mg/kg/d) that was still adequate to reduce their plasma ACE activity and LDL propensity to lipid peroxidation was insufficient to lower their blood pressure. This dosage also reduced the aortic lesion size in the apo E deficient mice by 40% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The antiatherogenic effects of fosinopril in apo E deficient mice are due not only to blood pressure reduction but also to the direct inhibition of angiotensin II-dependent effects, which are probably also associated with the inhibition of LDL oxidation. (+info)
Maximally recommended doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors do not completely prevent ACE-mediated formation of angiotensin II in chronic heart failure.
BACKGROUND: The added benefits of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT(1)) blockers (ARBs) to ACE inhibition suggests that recommended doses of ACE inhibitors provide only partial inhibition of ACE in chronic heart failure (CHF). Accordingly, the level of ACE inhibition was assessed by the pressor response to angiotensin (Ang) I in patients who had been treated with recommended doses of ACE inhibitors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-two patients with CHF receiving 40 mg/d of a long-acting ACE inhibitor or 150 mg of captopril were studied. Radial artery systolic pressure (RASP, mm Hg) was monitored noninvasively. The pressor response to ascending doses of Ang I was evaluated in all patients before and after administration of the ARB valsartan. The pressor response to Ang I before and after valsartan was also reevaluated in 11 patients after the dose of ACE inhibitor was doubled for 1 week. RASP increased linearly with significantly ascending doses of Ang I despite treatment with ACE inhibitors. The pressor response to Ang I was blunted significantly by valsartan. Ang I-induced increase in RASP did not correlate with duration of ACE inhibitor therapy. After the dose of ACE inhibitors was doubled, the pressor response to Ang I was no longer different from that noted after valsartan. CONCLUSIONS: Recommended doses of ACE inhibitors do not fully inhibit ACE in CHF. The level of ACE inhibition achieved is not related to duration of ACE inhibitor therapy. Greater ACE inhibition is also achieved at twice the recommended doses of ACE inhibitors. (+info)