Reinforcement mechanism of dentin mechanical properties by intracanal medicaments.
The reinforcement mechanism of dentin mechanical properties by intracanal medicaments was investigated. The dumbbell-shaped specimens were prepared from a collagen sheet, demineralized dentin and organic dissolved dentin. After immersing the specimens in intracanal medicaments (eugenol and formocresol), the tensile test was carried out in 37 degrees C water and the Vickers hardness test was performed. The tensile strengths increased after eugenol and formocresol immersion, especially collagen and organic dissolved dentin after formocresol immersion and demineralized dentin after eugenol immersion. Thus, formocresol immersion might have reinforced the dentin tensile strength by protein coagulation, while eugenol immersion might have reinforced the dentin tensile strength by not only protein coagulation but also chelation with hydroxyapatite. However, the hardness values did not significantly change after intracanal medicament immersion. (+info
Mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulpotomy agent in primary molars: an in vivo study.
The retention of pulpally involved deciduous tooth in a healthy state until the time of normal exfoliation remains to be one of the challenges for Pedodontists. A scientific noise has been generated about several materials some of which have been popular pulpotomy medicaments. Concerns have been raised about the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of these materials, and alternatives have been proposed to maintain the partial pulp vitality, however to date no material has been accepted as an ideal pulpotomy agent. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biocompatible material which provides a biological seal. MTA has been proposed as a potential medicament for various pulpal procedures like pulp capping with reversible pulpitis, apexification, repair of root perforations, etc. Hence the present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of MTA as a pulpotomy medicament. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was done on children where MTA was used as pulpotomy medicament in primary molars for a period of 6 months and it was found to be a successful material. (+info
Persuasive evidence that formocresol use in pediatric dentistry is safe.
Concern has been expressed about the safety of formocresol use in pediatric dentistry. Formaldehyde, a primary component in formocresol, is a hazardous substance and is considered a probable human carcinogen by Health Canada. However, humans inhale and ingest formaldehyde daily and also produce this compound as part of normal cellular metabolism. The human body is physiologically equipped to handle this exposure through multiple pathways for oxidation of formaldehyde to formate and incorporation into biological macromolecules via tetrahydrofolate-dependent one-carbon biosynthetic pathways. Recent re-evaluation of earlier research that examined potential health risks associated with formaldehyde exposure has shown that the research was based on flawed assumptions, which resulted in erroneous conclusions. This review examines more recent research about formaldehyde metabolism, pharmacokinetics and carcinogenicity, the results of which indicate that formaldehyde is probably not a potent human carcinogen under conditions of low exposure. Extrapolation of these research results to pediatric dentistry suggests an inconsequential risk of carcinogenesis associated with formaldehyde use in pediatric pulp therapy. Areas for further investigation are suggested. (+info
Histological analysis of the association between formocresol and endotoxin in the subcutaneous tissue of mice.
This study performed a histological analysis of the effect of formocresol associated to endotoxin (LPS) in the subcutaneous connective tissue of mice. Ninety mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=30). Each animal received one plastic tube implant containing endotoxin solution (10 mg/mL), formocresol (original formula) or a mixture of endotoxin and formocresol. The endotoxin and formocresol groups served as controls. The periods of analysis were 7, 15 and 30 days. At each experimental period, tissue samples were collected and submitted to routine processing for histological analysis. Endotoxin and formocresol produced necrosis and chronic inflammation at 7 and 15 days. At 30 days, the endotoxin group showed no necrosis, while in the formocresol group necrosis persisted. The formocresol-endotoxin association produced necrosis and chronic inflammation in the same way as observed with formocresol at all experimental periods. In conclusion, formocresol seems not to be able to inactive the toxic effects of endotoxin in connective tissues. (+info
Clinical and radiographic comparison of primary molars after formocresol and electrosurgical pulpotomy: a randomized clinical trial.
BACKGROUND: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure defined as the surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for electrosurgical vs formocresol pulpotomy in human primary molar teeth. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, pulpotomies were performed on 70 primary molars in children aged 5-10 years. The teeth were treated using either a conventional formocresol (35 teeth) or electrosurgical technique (35 teeth). Following the pulpotomy procedure, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success for three, six and nine months. The teeth were evaluated for the presence of pain, abscess, fistula, mobility, internal and external resorption, and radiolucency. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data were assessed with Fishers' Exact test. RESULTS: After nine months of follow-up, the clinical and radiographic success rates were 96 and 84% respectively in the electrosurgical group and 100 and 96.8% respectively in the formocresol group. There was no statistically significant difference between the success rates in the two groups ( P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for formocresol pulpotomy. Although electrosurgical pulpotomy is a nonpharmacological technique giving favorable results, it is still a preservative technique. Further studies using larger samples and longer evaluation periods are recommended. (+info
Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study.
Mineral trioxide aggregate in primary teeth pulpotomy. A systematic literature review.
Evidence-based dentistry is a critical evaluation, awareness of the available evidence to improve decision making about the care of individual patients and/or communities. OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the available scientific literature on clinical and radiographic results of two materials used in pulpotomy in primary teeth: formocresol and mineral trioxide aggregate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was identified relevant publications through a search of electronic databases such as MEDLINE (Ovid) and The Cochrane Library. To be included in the review, studies had to define the material used in child patients with pulp exposure by caries or tooth-alveolar trauma. RESULTS: Of the 21 articles obtained in the initial phase of the review, only 19 were available in full text and of these only met the requirements for inclusion 6 items, which were confronted, analyzed and discussed later. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical evidence available showed significant differences regarding the use of a material or another. In addition to the findings of clinical follow--radiographic and taking into account the potential toxicity of formocresol suggest the use of mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy of primary teeth. (+info
Comparative evaluation of formocresol and mineral trioxide aggregate as pulpotomy agents in deciduous teeth.