Spirillum swimming: theory and observations of propulsion by the flagellar bundle.
The hydrodynamics and energetics of helical swimming by the bacterium Spirillum sp. is analysed using observations from medium speed cine photomicrography and theory. The photographic records show that the swimming organism's flagellar bundles beat in a helical fashion just as other bacterial flagella do. The data are analysed according to the rotational resistive theory of Chwang & Wu (1971) in a simple-to-use parametric form with the viscous coefficients Cs and Cn calculated according to the method of Lighthill (1975). Results of the analysis show that Spirillum dissipated biochemical energy in performing work against fluid resistance to motion at an average rate of about 6 X 10(-8) dyne cm s-1 with some 62-72% of the power dissipation due to the non-contractile body. These relationships yield a relatively low hydromechanical efficiency which is reflected in swimming speeds much smaller than a representative eukaryote. In addition the Cn/Cs ratio for the body is shown to lie in the range 0-86-1-51 and that for the flagellar bundle in the range 1-46-1-63. The implications of the power calculations for the Berg & Anderson (1973) rotating shaft model are discussed and it is shown that a rotational resistive theory analysis predicts a 5-cross bridge M ring for each flagellum of Spirillum. (+info)
Biodegradable polymer film as a source for formation of human fetal retinal pigment epithelium spheroids.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the attachment of human fetal rctinal pigment epithelial (HFRPE) cells to a biodegradable polymer film with subsequent formation of spheroids in vitro. METHODS: Ten biodegradable polymer films with different compositions were examined for their physical properties and ease of manipulation under a dissecting microscope. The film with the most suitable handling characteristics was chosen, and a purely isolated sheet of HFRPE cells was attached to it. The purity of the cells was assessed by their pigmentation and expression of cytokeratin. Proliferation was assessed by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdtJ). Cellular structure was analyzed under light and electron microscopes, and the functional capability of the cells was evaluated by rod outer segment (ROS) phagocytosis. RESULTS: The polymer film with composition 50:50 poly (DL-lactide) (PLA)/poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) with an inherent viscosity of 1.03 dl/g was found to be the most suitable for handling under the microscope. Sheets of HFRPE cells attached to the polymer films within 48 hours and began to form spheroids. All the isolated cells were pigmented and expressed cytokeratin. They possessed a cuboidal morphology, numerous apical microvilli, and no sign of dedifferentiation. HFRPE cells produced extracellular matrix (collagen filaments) on their basal side, filling the cavities of the polymer film. The cells subsequently proliferated, incorporated BrdU, migrated onto the culture plate to form monolayers, and phagocytized ROS. CONCLUSIONS: Biodegradable polymer films can be used as a scaffold for the adhesion of the HFRPE sheet and formation of spheroids. Spheroids represent a source of high density and well-differentiated HFRPE cells that are easy to transfer. Furthermore, the stricture of the membrane makes it suitable for additional applications. (+info)
Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. (+info)
Movement of sea urchin sperm flagella.
The motion of the sea urchin sperm flagellum was analyzed from high-speed cinemicrographs. At all locations on the flagellum the transversal motion and the curvature were found to vary sinusoidally in time. The curvatures of the flagella increase strongly near the proximal junction. Two sperm are described in transient from rest to normal motion. The full wave motion developed in both sperm within 40 ms. (+info)
Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of second-hand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal. DESIGN: Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview. SUBJECTS: 54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry. RESULTS: Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies. (+info)
Developmental changes of cardiac function and mass assessed with MRI in neonatal, juvenile, and adult mice.
Cardiovascular transgenic mouse models with an early phenotype or even premature death require noninvasive imaging methods that allow for accurate visualization of cardiac morphology and function. Thus the purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize cardiac function and mass in newborn, juvenile, and adult mice. Forty-five C57bl/6 mice from seven age groups (3 days to 4 mo after birth) were studied by MRI under isoflurane anesthesia. Electrocardiogram-gated cine MRI was performed with an in-plane resolution of (78-117 microm)(2). Temporal resolution per cine frame was 8.6 ms. MRI revealed cardiac anatomy in mice from all age groups with high temporal and spatial resolution. There was close correlation between MRI- and autopsy-determined left ventricular (LV) mass (r = 0.95, SE of estimate = 9.5 mg). The increase of LV mass (range 9.6-101.3 mg), cardiac output (range 1.1-14.3 ml/min), and stroke volume (range 3. 2-40.2 microl) with age could be quantified by MRI measurements. Ejection fraction and cardiac index did not change with aging. However, LV mass index decreased with increasing age (P < 0.01). High-resolution MRI allows for accurate in vivo assessment of cardiac function in neonatal, juvenile, and adult mice. This method should be useful when applied in transgenic mouse models. (+info)
Women and smoking in Hollywood movies: a content analysis.
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the portrayal of smoking in Hollywood films starring 10 popular actressess. METHODS: Five movies were randomly sampled for each actress, for a total of 96 hours of film footage that was analyzed in 1116 5-minute intervals. RESULTS: Leading female actors were as likely to smoke in movies aimed at juvenile audiences (PG/PG-13) as in R-rated movies, whereas male actors were 2.5 times more likely to smoke in R-rated movies. PG/PG-13-rated movies were less likely than R-rated movies to contain negative messages about smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is highly prevalent in Hollywood films featuring popular actressess and may influence young audiences for whom movie stars serve as role models. (+info)
Effects of activin A and follistatin on developmental kinetics of bovine embryos: cinematographic analysis in a chemically defined medium.
The effects of recombinant human activin A and follistatin on the developmental kinetics of bovine presumptive zygotes matured and fertilized in vitro using time-lapse cinematography were investigated. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 9 days in a chemically defined medium (modified synthetic oviduct fluid, control) and modified synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with activin A or follistatin. Development under cine-recording conditions was similar to that in an incubator. Addition of activin A to modified synthetic oviduct fluid increased, while addition of follistatin decreased, the percentage of zygotes that developed to morulae and blastocysts. Follistatin significantly prolonged the timing of development to the 9-16-cell stage compared with the control and activin A media. Activin A significantly shortened the duration of the third cell cycle compared with the control, but follistatin significantly prolonged the fourth cell cycle compared with the control and activin A. Developmental arrest ('lag-phase') during the 4-8-cell stage was observed in 95% of embryos developed to more than the 9-16-cell stage in all treatments. The greater the number of cells at the onset of the lag-phase, the earlier the onset of the phase and the shorter the duration of the phase, the further embryos were able to develop by day 9 in all treatments. The number of cells at the onset of the lag-phase in the medium containing activin A was significantly higher than it was in control or follistatin-containing media. Moreover, activin A significantly shortened the duration of the lag-phase compared with follistatin. The present results indicate that activin A may enhance in vitro development of bovine embryos by improving developmental kinetics, especially by increasing the number of cells at the onset of the lag-phase and shortening the duration of this phase. (+info)