Natural copepods are superior to enriched artemia nauplii as feed for halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids.
Replicate groups of halibut larvae were fed to d 71 post-first feeding (PFF) either the marine copepod, Eurytemora velox, or Artemia nauplii doubly enriched with the marine chromist or golden algae, Schizochytrium sp., (Algamac 2000) and a commercial oil emulsion (SuperSelco). The fatty acid compositions of eyes, brains and livers from larvae fed the two diets were measured, and indices of growth, eye migration and skin pigmentation were recorded along with histological examinations of eye and liver. The docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3); DHA]/eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3); EPA] ratios in Artemia nauplii enriched with the SuperSelco and Algamac 2000 were 0.4 and 1.0, respectively. The E. velox copepods were divided into two size ranges (125-250 and 250-400 microm) with the smaller size range containing the highest level of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The DHA/EPA ratios for the two size ranges of copepods were 2.0 and 0.9, respectively. The total lipids of eyes, brains and livers of larvae fed copepods had higher levels of DHA and lower levels of EPA than those of larvae fed enriched Artemia. The percentage of survival of the halibut larvae was significantly higher when copepods rather than enriched Artemia nauplii were fed, but larval specific growth rates did not differ. The indices of eye migration were high and not significantly different in larvae fed the two diets, but the percentage of larvae undergoing successful metamorphosis (complete eye migration and dorsal pigmentation) was higher in larvae fed copepods (40%) than in larvae fed enriched Artemia (4%). The rod/cone ratios in histological sections of the retina were 2.5 +/- 0.7 in larvae fed copepods and 1.3 +/- 0.6 in larvae fed enriched Artemia (P < 0.01). Histological examination of the livers and intestines of the larvae were consistent with better assimilation of lipid from copepods than lipid from Artemia nauplii up to 46 d post-first feeding. Thus, marine copepods are superior to enriched Artemia as food for halibut larvae in terms of survival, eye development and pigmentation, and this superiority can be related to the level of DHA in the feed. (+info)
Differences in essential fatty acid requirements by enteral and parenteral routes of administration in patients with fat malabsorption.
BACKGROUND: Essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the influence of the route of administration (enteral compared with parenteral) on plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations. DESIGN: Intestinal absorption, parenteral supplement of EFAs, and plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations were investigated in balance studies in 4 groups (A, B, C, and D) of 10 patients with short-bowel syndrome and a fecal loss of >2000 kJ/d. Groups A (fat malabsorption <50%) and B (fat malabsorption >50%) did not receive HPN, whereas group C received HPN containing lipids (7.5 and 1.2 g/d linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively) and group D received fat-free HPN. RESULTS: Intestinal absorption of linoleic and linolenic acids was 8.9 and 1.3 g/d and 2. 6 and 0.4 g/d in groups A and B, respectively, whereas EFA absorption was negligible in groups C and D. Thus, intestinal absorption of EFAs in group A corresponded to parenteral EFA supplements in group C, whereas group D was almost totally deprived of EFAs. The median plasma phospholipid concentration of linoleic acid decreased by 21.9%, >16.3%, >13.8%, 11.0%, and >7.7% and linolenic acid by 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.2%, >0.2%, and 0.1%, respectively, in 10 healthy control subjects and groups A, B, C, and D (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Intestinally absorbed EFAs maintained plasma EFA status better than did an equal quantity of parenterally supplied EFAs. Intravenous requirements of EFAs in patients with negligible absorption of EFAs are probably higher than the amounts recommended to patients with preserved intestinal absorption of EFAs. (+info)
Lipoprotein(a), essential fatty acid status and lipoprotein lipids in female Australian vegetarians.
In the present study we investigated serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels, plasma lipids, the serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and correlates of serum Lp(a) in healthy free-living female vegetarians (n=50) and omnivores (n=24) to assess differences which may have implications for cardiovascular risk. Dietary saturated fat and total plasma cholesterol were significantly lower in the vegetarians compared with omnivores. The mean serum Lp(a) concentration was lower in the vegetarians (171 mg/l) than in the omnivores (247 mg/l). The serum Lp(a) concentration was significantly negatively correlated with carbohydrate intake (as % of energy), and positively correlated with plasma total cholesterol. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly lower concentrations of 20:3,n-6, 20:4,n-6, 22:5,n-6, 20:5,n-3, 22:6,n-3 and total n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a lower n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, in serum phospholipids. Lower concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, serum phospholipid total fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid, and a tendency towards a lower serum Lp(a) concentration, in vegetarians may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk. However, the decreased concentration of serum phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may potentially promote thrombotic risk. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for omnivores to reduce their dietary intake of total fat and saturated fat in order to decrease their plasma cholesterol, and vegetarians should perhaps increase their dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and thus improve the balance of n-3/n-6, in order to reduce any thrombotic tendency that might increase their generally low risk of cardiovascular disease. (+info)
The impairment of essential fatty acid metabolism as a key factor in doxorubicin-induced damage in cultured rat cardiomyocytes.
The clinical use of the antitumoral doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its cardiotoxicity, which is mediated through different mechanisms. The membrane lipid peroxidation induced by DOX may cause disruption of the unsaturated fatty acyl chains; in the endoplasmic reticulum, containing the system catalyzing the desaturation/elongation of fatty acids, DOX could interfere with the metabolism of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. Using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes we demonstrated that the exposure to different concentrations of DOX (10(-5) and 10(-7) M) for 24 h caused an increase in the production of conjugated dienes, an impairment in the desaturation/elongation of essential fatty acids, and a reduction in the cellular content of highly unsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, 1 h exposure to 10(-5) M DOX was sufficient to induce alterations in the desaturation/elongation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, but did not cause either formation of conjugated dienes or modification of the fatty acyl pattern. Therefore, DOX has a dual negative effect, depending on its concentration and on the time of exposure, one directed against the membrane highly unsaturated fatty acids, the other against the system which is required for the synthesis of these fatty acids themselves. These two effects synergically act in causing heart cell damage. (+info)
Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) derived from linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids are required for the normal development of the retina and central nervous system, but the extent to which they can be synthesized from the parent fatty acids is debated. Consuming LCPUFAs markedly increases their proportions in tissue lipids compared with their parent fatty acids. Thus, it has been argued that LCPUFAs must be supplied in the diet. LCPUFAs are generally absent from plant foods, thus it is important find out how essential fatty acid requirements are met by vegetarians. A developing fetus obtains LCPUFAs via selective uptake from its mother's plasma and LCPUFAs are present in the breast milk of vegetarians. There is no evidence that the capacity to synthesize LCPUFAs is limited in vegetarians. However, there are greater proportions of n-6 LCPUFAs and lower proportions of n-3 LCPUFAs in vegetarians compared with omnivores. This difference is probably a consequence of the selection of foods by vegetarians with high amounts of linoleic acid. Although lower concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) have been observed in blood and artery phospholipids of infants of vegetarians, it is uncertain whether their brain lipids contain lower proportions of DHA than do those of infants of omnivores. On the basis of experiments in primates that showed altered visual function with a high ratio of linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid, it would be prudent to recommend diets with a ratio between 4:1 and 10:1 in vegetarians and that excessive intakes of linoleic acid be avoided. (+info)
Neonatal dietary zinc deficiency in artificially reared rat pups retards behavioral development and interacts with essential fatty acid deficiency to alter liver and brain fatty acid composition.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether short-term zinc deficiency in the early neonatal period would exacerbate the effects of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on liver and brain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition, as well as on behavioral development in artificially reared rat pups. Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, male Long-Evans rat pups were reared artificially from postnatal d 5 to 16; pups were fed through gastrostomy tubes with rat formula deficient in zinc and/or EFA. As expected, EFA deficiency significantly reduced levels of arachidonic acid [AA, 20:4(n-6)] and docosahexanoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)] in liver phosphatidylcholine (PC) and brain phosphaditylethanolamine (PE), and increased 22:5(n-6) levels in liver and brain PC and PE. There were significant interactions between zinc and EFA in liver such that zinc deficiency reduced AA and DHA in the EFA-adequate groups, but significantly increased AA in the EFA-deficient groups. Contrary to the hypothesis, short-term zinc deficiency did not exacerbate the effects of EFA deficiency in liver phospholipids. In brain PE, a significant interaction between EFA and zinc was observed such that zinc deficiency increased 22:5(n-6) concentrations in EFA-adequate but not in EFA-deficient groups. Regardless of their EFA status, zinc-deficient rats were growth retarded and demonstrated deficits in locomotor skills. Possible effects of long-term zinc and EFA deficiency on brain function should be investigated in future studies. (+info)
Fatty acids specifically related to the anisotropic properties of plasma membrane from rat urothelium.
Four different luminal surfaces of rat urothelium differing in their fatty acid composition were prepared by dietary induction. In order to induce lipid changes, each of four groups of rat received a basal diet rich in one of the unsaturated n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acid families and a commercial (control) diet. The effects of the dietary regime on the fatty acid composition of luminal urothelial membranes and their relation to the mobility of fluorescent probes were studied. In comparison with the control diet membrane, all three fatty acid-rich diets induced a decrease of the percentage amount of saturated fatty acid while that of the unsaturated fatty acids was increased. Accordingly, all three diets increased the unsaturation index in comparison with the control diet. The anisotropy across each membrane fraction was assessed using the n-(9-anthroyloxy) fatty acid fluorescent probes 3-AS, 7-AS and 12-AS, which locate at different depths in the membrane. Two different anisotropy profiles were observed. One profile showed the highest anisotropy at the C7 depth, whereas the other exhibited a continuous decrease of the anisotropy from the surface to the center of the bilayer. The molecular properties (isomerization) of 18:2n-9 fatty acid may account, at least in part, for the observed V-shaped profile (the ascending trend) of the membrane anisotropy values as a function of the respective 18:2n-9 fatty acid contents. Nevertheless, the minimum value of the profile did not correspond to the minimum 18:2n-9 fatty acid content, but rather to the higher amount of docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) fatty acid. Thus, a modulating role of the 22:6n-3 fatty acid on the rigidifying effect of 18:2n-9 fatty acid is suggested, possibly mediated by relationships between fatty acid composition, saturated and unsaturated chain lengths, and freedom of motion of the phospholipid acyl chains. (+info)
Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease.
In the past 2 decades, views about dietary n-3 fatty acids have moved from speculation about their functions to solid evidence that they are not only essential nutrients but also may favorably modulate many diseases. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), which is a vital component of the phospholipids of cellular membranes, especially in the brain and retina, is necessary for their proper functioning. n-3 Fatty acids favorably affect atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, inflammatory disease, and perhaps even behavioral disorders. The 38 articles in this supplement document the importance of n-3 fatty acids in both health and disease. (+info)